Alcalá de Henares

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Alcalá de Henares
Flag of Spain.svg Spanja
Alcalá de Henares - 50913617211.jpg
Bandera de Alcalá de Henares.svg Coat of Arms of Alcalá de Henares.svg
Amministrazzjoni
Stat sovranSpanja
Autonomous community of SpainKomunità ta' Madrid
Kap tal-Gvern Javier Rodríguez Palacios (en) Translate
Isem uffiċjali Alcalá de Henares
Ismijiet oriġinali Alcalá de Henares
Kodiċi postali E 28800-28807
Ġeografija
Koordinati 40°28′55″N 3°21′51″W / 40.481815°N 3.364305°W / 40.481815; -3.364305Koordinati: 40°28′55″N 3°21′51″W / 40.481815°N 3.364305°W / 40.481815; -3.364305
Alcalá de Henares is located in Spain
Alcalá de Henares
Alcalá de Henares
Alcalá de Henares (Spain)
Alcalá de Henares (Madrid) mapa.svg
Superfiċjenti 88 kilometru kwadru
Għoli 588 m
Fruntieri ma' Anchuelo (en) Translate, Daganzo de Arriba (en) Translate, Meco (en) Translate, San Fernando de Henares (en) Translate, Torrejón de Ardoz (en) Translate, Torres de la Alameda (en) Translate, Villalbilla (en) Translate, Camarma de Esteruelas (en) Translate, Azuqueca de Henares (en) Translateu Los Santos de la Humosa (en) Translate
Demografija
Popolazzjoni 195,982 abitanti (2021)
Informazzjoni oħra
Kodiċi tat-telefon 91
Żona tal-Ħin UTC+1u UTC+2
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ayto-alcaladehenares.es

Alcalá de Henares (pronunzja bl-Ispanjol: [alkaˈla ðe eˈnaɾes]) hija belt Spanjola fil-Komunità ta' Madrid. Tul ix-xmara Henares, il-belt tinsab 35 kilometru (22 mil) fil-Grigal taċ-ċentru ta' Madrid. Skont iċ-ċensiment tal-2018[1], il-belt għandha popolazzjoni ta' 193,751 ruħ, u b'hekk hija t-tielet l-iktar municipalitàm popolata fir-reġjun.

Qabilha kien hemm insedjamenti iktar bikrin (oppida) fuq ix-xatt tax-xellug tax-xmara Henares. Il-belt oriġinat bl-insedjament ta' Complutum stabbilit fi Żmien ir-Rumani fuq ix-xatt tal-lemin (it-Tramuntana) tax-xmara, li sar veskovat fis-seklu 5. Waħda mid-diversi ċittadelli Musulmani f'al-Andalus (għalhekk issemmiet Alcalá, li huwa isem li oriġina mit-terminu Għarbi għal "ċittadella") ġiet stabbilita fuq ix-xatt tax-xellug, filwaqt li, wara l-qofol tal-ħakma Kristjana għall-ħabta tal-1118, il-biċċa l-kbira tan-nukleu urban irritorna fix-xatt tal-lemin. Għall-biċċa l-kbira tal-aħħar tal-Medju Evu u l-bidu tal-perjodu modern qabel ma saret parti mill-provinċja ta' Madrid, Alcalá de Henares kienet proprjetà sinjorili tal-arċisqfijiet ta' Toledo.

Iċ-ċentru storiku u l-università tal-belt huma Sit ta' Wirt Dinji tal-UNESCO.[2]

Il-belt għandha tradizzjoni universitarja twila. Francisco Jiménez de Cisneros stabbilixxa l-Università Complutense f'Alcalá de Henares fl-aħħar tas-seklu 15. Il-belt attwalment tospita l-Università (stabbilita mill-ġdid) ta' Alcalá. Hija l-belt fejn twieled Miguel de Cervantes.

Etimoloġija[immodifika | immodifika s-sors]

Lokalment, il-belt ġeneralment hija magħrufa sempliċement bħala Alcalá, iżda de Henares ("tax-xmara Henares") tiżdied meta jkun meħtieġ biex tiġi distinta minn xi tużżana bliet Spanjoli oħra bl-isem ta' Alcalá (mill-kelma Għarbija القلعة al-qalʿa, għal "fortifikazzjoni" jew "ċittadella", tipikament kastell).

L-isem Latin tagħha Complutum tfisser "konfluwenza"[3][4], fejn l-ilma tax-xmara (jew l-ilma tax-xita) jinġabar f'post wieħed (jiġifieri compluvium).[5][6]

Storja[immodifika | immodifika s-sors]

Mużajk Ruman tal-erba' staġuni, id-Dar ta' Bacchus, Complutum.

Il-konfini tal-belt ilhom abitati mill-fażi Kalkolitika ta' Żmien il-Bronż. Ir-Rumani ħakmu l-inħawi fis-seklu 1 Q.K., u bnew il-belt ta' Complutum qrib l-insedjament preċedenti Karpetanjan, Iplacea. B'10,000 abitant, ingħatat status ta' municipium u kellha l-istituzzjonijiet governattivi tagħha stess. Kellha rwol importanti peress li kienet tinsab tul it-triq Rumana li kienet tikkollega lil Emerita Augusta u Caesaraugusta.[7] Wara l-waqgħa tal-Imperu Ruman, taħt il-Viżigoti, marret lura, għalkemm saret ukoll destinazzjoni ta' pellegrinaġġi ta' mafkar tal-Qaddisin Justo u Pastor.

Meta waslu l-Għarab Iberiċi fis-711, ħakmu l-belt tal-Viżigoti u stabbilew sit ieħor billi bnew al-qalʿa, li tfisser "ċittadella" bl-Għarbi, fuq għolja fil-qrib, magħrufa llum il-ġurnata bħala Alcalá la Vieja. Fit-3 ta' Mejju 1118, il-belt inħakmet mill-Arċisqof ta' Toledo Bernard de Sedirac f'isem Kastilja.

Ftit wara, fl-10 ta' Frar 1129[8], Alfonso VII ta l-belt lil Raymond de Sauvetât, Arċisqof ukoll ta' Toledo, u saret proprjetà arċiveskovali għal sekli sħaħ.[9] Raymond ta l-belt fuero (dokument) antik fl-1135.[10]

Il-Kristjani ppreferew il-Burgo de Santiuste ("ir-raħal ta' San Justo") fis-sit Ruman oriġinali, u s-sit Musulman ġie abbandunat.

Taħt it-tmexxija Kristjana sal-aħħar tar-Reconquista, il-belt kellha kwartier Lhudi u kwartier Musulman kif ukoll suq rinomat. Bis-saħħa tal-pożizzjoni ċentrali tagħha kienet residenza frekwenti tar-Rejiet ta' Kastilja, meta kienu jivvjaġġaw lejn in-Nofsinhar tal-pajjiż.

Fl-istess żmien fis-snin 80 tas-seklu 15, Kristofru Kolombu għall-ewwel darba ltaqa' hemmhekk mar-Reyes Católicos, ir-Re Ferdinandu II ta' Aragona u l-mara tiegħu r-Reġina Isabella I ta' Kastilja, li ffinanzjaw il-vjaġġ għall-Iskoperta tal-Amerka.

Il-Kardinal Cisneros ta fuero ġdid lill-belt fl-1509.[11]

Veduta tal-belt ta' Anton van den Wyngaerde (1565).

Għalkemm kienet pjuttost irvinata, ir-raħal kiseb l-istatus ta' belt fl-1687 wara negozjati twal.[12]

Fid-dekadenza minn nofs is-seklu 18, Alcalá de Henares esperjenzat żvolta demografika u ekonomika relattivament pożittiva fit-tieni nofs tas-seklu 19, ibbażata fuq il-kundizzjoni l-ġdida tagħha ta' stazzjonament militari, u magħha żdied nukleu industrijali embrijunali.[13]

Calle Mayor, għall-ħabta tal-1910.

Il-popolazzjoni żdiedet b'mod kostanti mill-1868 sal-1939. Il-popolazzjoni kienet fil-biċċa l-kbira agrarja, b'livelli għoljin ta' illitteriżmu u faqar. Filwaqt li kienu qed ifittxu l-bidla soċjali, il-movimenti Repubblikani u iktar 'il quddiem Soċjalisti kibru fi ħdan il-belt. Il-figura ewlenija tal-moviment Soċjalista kien Antonio Fernández Quer, li sar l-ewwel kunsillier muniċipali mill-Partit tal-Ħaddiema Soċjalisti Spanjoli fil-provinċja ta' Madrid fl-1903. B'reazzjoni għall-avvanzi Soċjalisti, il-Kattoliċiżmu soċjali tkattar fil-belt mill-1905, u stabbilixxa għadd ta' organizzazzjoni bħaċ-Centro Católico de Acción Social Popular u l-Mutual Obrera Complutense.[14]

Wara l-kolp ta' stat tal-1936 li qanqal il-Gwerra Ċivili Spanjola, elementi putschisti ħatfu xi postijiet ewlenin madwar il-belt. Madankollu, wara l-kolp li falla f'Madrid, qawwiet ribelli f'Alcalá eventwalment arrendew quddiem il-Kurunell Repubblikan Ildefonso Puigdendolas u t-truppi tiegħu fil-21 ta' Lulju.[15] Alcalá, li kienet saħansitra saret bażi tas-setgħa Sovjetika matul il-kunflitt — "repubblika fi ħdan ir-repubblika" fejn il-gvern nazzjonali Repubblikan kellu ħakma qawwija — kienet il-post fejn il-mexxej tal-POUM Andrés Nin kien ġie ttrasferit u x'aktarx ittorturat u nqatel f'Ġunju 1937 minn aġenti tal-NKVD.[16][17]

Il-belt ġarrbet ħsarat estensivi matul il-Gwerra Ċivili Spanjola.

Eluf ta' priġunieri nżammew f'kampijiet differenti fil-belt wara tmiem il-gwerra. Minn Marzu 1939 sa Frar 1948, mill-inqas 264 individwu ġew ġustizzjati f'Alcalá mill-awtoritajiet ta' Franco.[18]

Storja ekkleżjastika[immodifika | immodifika s-sors]

Il-belt ta' importanza storika kienet wieħed mill-ewwel veskovati stabbiliti fi Spanja.

Il-Bibbja poliglotta magħrufa bħala l-Bibbja Poliglotta Komplutensjana, l-ewwel fost bosta Bibbji simili prodotti matul it-tqanqil mill-ġdid tal-istudji Bibbliċi li seħħew fis-seklu 16, ġiet stampata f'Alcalá taħt il-kura tal-Kardinal Cisneros.

Barri Papali tas-7 ta' Marzu 1885, għaqqad lil Alcalá mad-djoċesi ta' Madrid (effettivament kien hemm fużjoni tagħhom), li tinkludi l-provinċja ċivili ta' Madrid, ta' suffraġju tal-arċiveskovat ta' Toledo. Ir-residenza tal-isqof minn dak iż-żmien intużat għall-preservazzjoni tal-arkivji storiċi. Ġiet iddisinjata minn Alonso Berruguete u għandha taraġ famuż.

Storja tal-Lhud[immodifika | immodifika s-sors]

Matul it-tmexxija Musulmana, il-komunità Lhudija tal-belt ingħata drittijiet ugwali bħall-Kristjani li kienu jgħixu fiha. Fil-Medju Evu, il-kongregazzjoni Lhudija tal-belt ħallset it-taxxi lill-Arċisqof ta' Toledo.[19] Il-Lhud ta' Alcalá ssemmew fis-Satira tas-seklu 14 ta' Marrano Pero Ferrús. Matul is-seklu 15, il-kongregazzjoni Lhudija tal-belt kienet waħda mill-ikbar f'Kastilja, b'madwar 200 familja Lhudija. L-istudji tal-Ebrajk fl-Università ta' Alcalá ġew imħeġġa mill-Kardinal Francisco Jimenez de Cisneros matul is-seklu 16, u ġab xi studjużi tal-Ebrajk Lhud u Marrano fil-belt. Il-pożizzjoni tal-kwartier Lhudi tal-belt hija magħrufa sew – bejn it-toroq Mayor, Santiago, Imagen u Cervantes. Kien hemm sinagoga fit-triq Carmen Calzado, nru 10 u oħra fit-triq Santiago. Wara d-Digriet ta' Alhambra tal-1492, il-Lhud kienu meħtieġa jsiru Kristjani biex ikomplu jgħixu f'Kastilja u f'Aragona; dawk li rrifjutaw kellhom jitilqu minn dawn ir-renji u l-biċċa l-kbira minnhom marru joqogħdu fit-Tramuntana tal-Afrika, f'Amsterdam u fl-Imperu Ottoman.

L-oriġini tal-familja ta' Miguel de Cervantes x'aktarx (ma hemmx ċertezza totali) kienet Lhudija. Minħabba li missieru ħadem fl-eks kwartier Lhudi, il-post fejn twieled kien qrib il-post tax-xogħol tiegħu, u anke għaliex il-kunjom Cervantes jagħmel referenza għal sit differenti fil-Majjistral ta' Spanja, u l-kunjomijiet ġeografiċi kienu komuni fost il-popolazzjoni Lhudija.

Sit ta' Wirt Dinji[immodifika | immodifika s-sors]

Iċ-Ċentru Storiku u l-Università ta' Alcalá de Henares ġew iddeżinjati bħala Sit ta' Wirt Dinji tal-UNESCO fl-1998.[2]

Il-valur universali straordinarju tas-sit ġie rrikonoxxut abbażi ta' tliet kriterji tal-għażla tal-UNESCO: il-kriterju (ii) "Wirja ta' skambju importanti ta' valuri umani, tul perjodu ta' żmien jew fi ħdan żona kulturali fid-dinja, dwar l-iżviluppi fl-arkitettura jew it-teknoloġija, l-arti monumentali, l-ippjanar tal-bliet jew id-disinn tal-pajsaġġ"; il-kriterju (iv) "Eżempju straordinarju ta' tip ta' bini, ta' grupp ta' siti jew ta' pajsaġġ arkitettoniku jew teknoloġiku li joħroġ fid-dieher stadju/i sinifikanti fl-istorja tal-bniedem"; u l-kriterju (vi) "Assoċjazzjoni diretta jew tanġibbli ma' avvenimenti jew ma' tradizzjonijiet ħajjin, ma' ideat jew ma' twemmin, jew ma' xogħlijiet artistiċi jew letterarji ta' valur universali straordinarju".[2]

Ġeografija[immodifika | immodifika s-sors]

Pożizzjoni[immodifika | immodifika s-sors]

Immaġni satellitari ta' Alcalá de Henares mis-Sentinel-2 tal-Aġenzija Spazjali Ewropea.

Alcalá de Henares tinsab fil-parti ċentrali tal-Peniżola Iberika, fil-parti tan-Nofsinhar tal-Promontorju ta' Ġewwa. Tinsab fil-wied tax-xmara Henares, tributarju tax-xatt tax-xellug tax-xmara Jarama, li min-naħa tiegħu huwa tributarju tax-xatt tal-lemin tax-xmara Tagus. Ix-xatt tal-lemin (tat-Tramuntana) tax-xmara (li fuqu kien inbena n-nukleu urban attwali) huwa magħmul minn wita ċatta ħafna b'sensiela ta' terrazzi fluvjali kwaternarji, filwaqt li x-xatt tax-xellug (tan-Nofsinhar) fih xaqliba wieqfa ħafna ta' blat tafli mill-Mioċen, li titla' malajr sal-medda xagħri ta' La Alcarria.[20]

B'altitudni medja ta' 654 metru u b'erja ta' madwar 88 km2; il-belt għal żmien twil kienet miżmuma bejn ix-xmara Henares fin-Nofsinhar u l-linja ferrovjarja bejn Madrid u Barċellona fit-Tramuntana. Madankollu, il-popolazzjoni dejjem tikber wasslet biex iż-żona urbanizzata tikber lil hinn mil-linja ferrovjarja u l-awtostrada A-2.

Klima[immodifika | immodifika s-sors]

Il-klima ta' din il-belt fiċ-ċentru ta' Spanja hija Mediterranja kontinentali, bi xtiewi kesħin u nexfin u bi sjuf sħan u nexfin. It-temperatura medja s-sena kollha hija 14 °C (57 °F). Il-preċipitazzjoni medja s-sena kollha hija ta' madwar 420 mm (16.5-il pulzier), u tinżel l-iktar fir-rebbiegħa u fil-ħarifa. It-temperatura tvarja minn ftit gradi taħt iż-0 °C (32 °F) f'Diċembru u f'Jannar għal ftit iktar minn 40 °C (104 °F) f'Lulju u f'Awwissu. L-istaġun tan-nixfa jaħbat mal-ogħla sħana fis-sajf.

Data klimatika għal Alcalá de Henares, Spanja
Xahar Jan Fra Mar Apr Mej Ġun Lul Aww Set Ott Nov Diċ Sena
Temp. għolja medja f'°C 10.6 12.2 15.6 17.2 21.7 27.8 32.2 32.2 27.8 20.0 14.4 11.1 20.2
Temp. baxxa medja f'°C 0.0 1.7 3.3 5.6 8.9 13.3 16.1 16.1 12.8 8.3 3.9 1.7 7.6
Preċipitazzjoni medja f'mm 45.7 43.2 38.1 45.7 40.6 25.4 10.2 10.2 30.5 45.7 63.5 48.3 447.0
Temp. għolja medja f'°F 51.1 54.0 60.1 63.0 71.1 82.0 90.0 90.0 82.0 68.0 57.9 52.0 68.4
Temp. baxxa medja f'°F 32.0 35.1 37.9 42.1 48.0 55.9 61.0 61.0 55.0 46.9 39.0 35.1 45.7
Preċipitazzjoni medja f'pulzieri 1.80 1.70 1.50 1.80 1.60 1.00 0.40 0.40 1.20 1.80 2.50 1.90 17.60
Sors: The Weather Channel Interactive, Inc.[21]

Università[immodifika | immodifika s-sors]

Ir-rectorado tal-Università ta' Alcalá.

The major landmark and one of the great prides of the city, its university, uses sites throughout the city, but has two main campuses. The first is on the north side of Alcalá. This campus includes most science departments and student housing (as well as its own, separate Renfe station). The second, central campus, houses most of the humanities and social-science departments, including a law school.

The architectural influence of the university can be found in other present-day academic institutions. The University of San Diego is largely based on the Spanish university; its campus and address take the name "Alcalá Park". In addition, some buildings at Texas Tech University in Lubbock, Texas were modeled after the architecture of Universidad de Alcalá de Henares.

Il-kjostru tal-università.

In 1293 in Alcalá de Henares King Sancho IV of Castile founded the Universidad Complutense, one of the oldest universities in the world, as a Studium Generale. With the patronage of Cardinal Cisneros, it was recognized in a 1499 papal bull, and quickly gained international fame as a main centre of learning of the Renaissance thanks to the production of the Complutensian Polyglot Bible in 1517, which is the basis for most[quantify] of the current translations. By royal decree, the university moved to Madrid in 1836 (initially as the Universidad de Madrid, later as the Universidad Central, which in the 1970s would finally be renamed Universidad Complutense de Madrid). A new university was founded in the old buildings as the Universidad de Alcalá in 1977. Parts of the new university occupy the buildings of the old Universidad Complutense in the city centre, including the modern Colegio de San Ildefonso, and other Colegios, and the structures have served as a model for other universities across the Spanish territories in the Americas and other dependencies.

Il-Palazz ta' Laredo.

The university chapel dedicated to Saint Ildefonso has a monument to the university's founder, Cardinal Cisneros, by Fancelli, an Italian sculptor.

Although the present university is named "Universidad de Alcalá", the ancient institution founded by Cisneros is the one now called "Universidad Complutense", translocated in the capital city of Madrid ("Complutensis" is the Latin word for "native of Alcalá"). The modern university is related to the original institution in name only, although it occupies the former buildings of the Complutense.

Katidral[immodifika | immodifika s-sors]

Il-Katidral tas-Santos Niños.

Aside from the buildings associated with the university, one of the city's most important and historic building is the Cathedral-Magistral of Saints Justus and Pastor, known formally in Spanish as the Santa e Insigne Catedral-Magistral de los Santos Justo y Pastor or more familiarly as the Catedral de los Santos Niños. Constructed between 1497 and 1514, the cathedral houses the remains of Saints Justus and Pastor, two Christian schoolboys martyred near the city during the persecutions of the Roman Emperor Diocletian at the beginning of the 4th century.

In 414 a chapel was erected at the site of Justus and Pastor's martyrdom, and was converted into a cathedral during the period of Visigoth control of Hispania; bishops from Alcalá were present at the Councils of Toledo beginning in the 7th century. In 1053 the old city of Alcalá (Alcalá la Vieja) was conquered by Ferdinand the Great, only to be recaptured the following year by the Moorish armies then warring for control of the Iberian Peninsula, who destroyed the cathedral as an act of retaliation. At that time the relics of Saints Justus and Pastor were taken to Huesca for safekeeping until after the reconquest of Alcalá in 1118. Although a church was rebuilt on the site in 1122, Pope Urban II, under the influence of his friend Raymond de Sauvetât, the Archbishop of Toledo, decided not to restore the Diocese of Alcalá at that time. Instead, de Sauvetât was able to secure the incorporation of Alcalá into his own archiepiscopal territories through a donation from King Alfonso VII in 1129.

Il-faċċata tal-Punent tal-Katidral tas-Santos Niños bi stil "Gotiku Isabellin".

The church was rebuilt again some three hundred years later by a subsequent archbishop of Toledo, Alfonso Carrillo de Acuña, who elevated it to the status of a collegiate church. It was finally reconstructed in its present Isabelline Gothic style under Cardinal Cisneros (1495–1517), the founder of the university. A tower was added between 1528 and 1582, achieving its modern appearance in 1618. The processional cloister and the Chapel of Saint Peter were incorporated into the building in the 17th century.

The building was declared a national monument in 1904. Nevertheless, it was burned during the Spanish Civil War (1936–1939), and practically all of its contents were destroyed with the exception of a few minor relics and choir seats.

Il-qabar tal-Kardinal Cisneros fil-katidral.

It was not until 1991 that the Diocese of Alcalá was finally restored, being separated from the Archdiocese of Madrid, at which time the building was granted its present status of cathedral-magistral. (Although the title "magistral" was originally granted by Cardinal Cisneros, the building was still technically only a collegiate church, and not yet a cathedral within the ecclesiastical meaning of the term.)

The Cathedral of Alcalá is notable as one of only two churches in the world to be granted the special title "magistral" (along with St. Peter's Church in Leuven, Belgium). The title reflects its former status as a collegiate church, and derives from the requirement that all of the canons of the cathedral must possess the academic distinction of Doctor of Theology in order to serve there.

In addition to that of Saints Justus and Pastor, the cathedral also houses the tomb of renowned 17th-century Spanish sculptor Gregorio Fernández.

Binjiet oħra[immodifika | immodifika s-sors]

Il-Knisja ta' Oidor.

The city is also home to the Archbishops Palace. This site is where Christopher Columbus and King Ferdinand planned the excursion to the West as well as the birthplace of Catherine of Aragon, daughter of Ferdinand and Isabella, who would be the first wife of King Henry VIII of England and therefore queen consort of England.

Alcalá's Corral of Comedies, which hosts a full program of theatre and is open for tours, is the oldest documented corral in the history of Spain.

Preżent[immodifika | immodifika s-sors]

The center of the city remains essentially medieval, with many winding cobbled streets, and many historic buildings. The city centre surrounds the Plaza de Cervantes and is traversed by a long pedestrian main street, the Calle Mayor. The city includes the Moorish quarter, the Jewish quarter, and the Christian quarter. These distinct neighborhoods have given Alcalá the reputation of "the city of three cultures."

The old city centre has been largely preserved, unlike the suburbs. There has been no clear planning by the city councillors regarding expansion, and the sprawling suburban areas are irregularly constructed, with the addition of 1970s-style high rise blocks in many places.

One of the most important streets in the city is the Calle del Cardenal Cisneros which takes tourists from the Madrid Gate at the entrance of the city, to the old city center and the cathedral in Santos Niños Square. The main park of Alcalá, Parque Municipal O'Donnell is a major recreational center for city residents and lies along a main road of Alcalá, Vía Complutense.

Recent archaeological excavations have opened up the city's Roman forum where a large complex comprising a basilica, public baths, a cryptoporticus, a market and a large monumental façade stands out. Alongside the forum is the Domus with an extraordinary collection of Roman domestic mural paintings. On the outskirts is the House of Hippolytus, an old school. In turn, the Regional Archaeology Museum (MAR) holds highly valuable mosaics.

The city hosts a large population of international students due to the presence of the university, and in particular its Spanish language and literature programs for foreign students. Alcalingua, a branch of University of Alcalá, is one of the major foreign language learning centers for students from abroad.

Ċikonji[immodifika | immodifika s-sors]

Alcalá is well known for its population of white storks. Their large nests can be observed atop many of the churches and historic buildings in the city, and are themselves a significant tourist attraction. Situated in the lowlands of the Henares river, the city is an attractive home for the migratory storks due to the wide availability of food and nesting material in the area.

For over twenty years, Alcalá's storks have been counted and studied, and the active protection and maintenance of their nests is by official policy. Although once in danger of disappearing, with only eleven pairs counted between 1986 and 1987, the population has grown to around 90 resident pairs today, many of which have shortened the distance and duration of their typical migrations to remain in the city nearly all year.

Immigrazzjoni[immodifika | immodifika s-sors]

Some 18% of the population are of foreign origin, according to the official data, a large part of the newcomers (30%) are immigrants from Eastern Europe. Many Chinese businesses have also been established in the city. Alcalá has the largest community (18%) of Romanian immigrants in Spain, with over 35,000 people. In 2007, for the first time, the immigrants from Romania created a political party for the elections to come.

Trasport[immodifika | immodifika s-sors]

L-awtostrada A-2 li tgħaddi mill-muniċipalità.

Alcalá's excellent transport links with Madrid have led to its becoming a commuter town, with many of its inhabitants travelling to work in the capital. By Cercanias (railway) is the lines C2 and C7 that links Alcalá de Henares with Madrid in 35 minutes, or Guadalajara in 25 minutes, also exists in the peak hours trains called CIVIS, direct train, that makes the journey in 20 minutes. Also it is linked by bus to Madrid, Guadalajara and several towns and villages in nearby. By car, Alcalá de Henares is well linked with the state roads network with the nearby A-2, the highway which starts in Madrid and continues on to Barcelona and to France.

Alcalá also has an intensive bus system called "Alcalá-Bus" which runs to all the major neighborhoods and costs 1,30 euro per ride.[citation needed]

Kultura[immodifika | immodifika s-sors]

Belt ta' Cervantes
L-istatwi tal-bronż ta' Don Quixote u Sancho Panza quddiem il-post fejn twieled Cervantes.

The city celebrates the birthday of native son Miguel de Cervantes on 9 October every year and organizes an annual Cervantes festival, the Semana Cervantina [es] (Cervantine Week).

Every year on 23 April, the anniversary of Cervantes' death, the city of Alcalá hosts the Miguel de Cervantes Prize, the Spanish-speaking world's most prestigious award for lifetime achievement in literature. The award is presented by the king of Spain at the University of Alcalá's historic Colegio de San Ildefonso. Speeches about the importance of the Spanish language are customarily given by the king, the minister of culture and the laureate. The ceremony attracts a wide range of dignitaries to the city including members of the royal family, the prime minister, and others. During this ceremony the citizens of Alcalá can be heard singing the city's song, entitled "Alcalá de Henares."

Alcalá de Henares is a member (and promoter) of the Red de Ciudades Cervantinas (Network of Cervantine Cities).

Festivals

Alcalá hosts an annual "Noche en Blanco." During this festival the streets are filled with music, art, theatre, and dance as the city residents celebrate Alcalá's rich cultural heritage. The festival goes well into the night and centers around the Plaza de Cervantes where stages are set up to host the performances.

Relazzjonijiet internazzjonali[immodifika | immodifika s-sors]

Ġemellaġġi[immodifika | immodifika s-sors]

Alcalá de Henares has reached twin town and sister city agreements with:

  • Talence, France (1985).
  • Peterborough, United Kingdom (1986).
  • Guanajuato, Mexico (1990).
  • San Diego, United States (1990).
  • Fort Collins, United States (1995).
  • Plaza de la Revolución [es], Cuba (1998).
  • Lublin, Poland (2001).
  • Alba Iulia, Romania (2005).
  • Azul, Argentina (2011).

Saint Didacus, known as San Diego in Spanish, was born in Alcalá de Henares and is the namesake for the city of San Diego, United States. Alcalá de Henares is the birthplace of Catherine of Aragon, is twinned with the English city of Peterborough in England, her final resting-place.

Nies notevoli[immodifika | immodifika s-sors]

  • Miguel de Cervantes (1547–1616). Spanish writer who is widely regarded as the greatest writer in the Spanish language and one of the world's pre-eminent novelists. His major work, Don Quixote, is considered the first modern novel, a classic of Western literature.
  • Juan Ruiz (1283–1350). Known as the Archpriest of Hita, was a medieval Castilian poet. He is best known for his ribald, earthy poem, "Libro de buen amor" (The Book of Good Love).
  • Catherine of Aragon (1485–1536). Catherine, the last surviving child of Queen Isabella I of Castile and King Ferdinand II of Aragon was born in the Archbishop's palace in Alcalá de Henares on December 16, 1485. She was Queen of England from June 1509 until May 1533 as the first wife of King Henry VIII
  • Ferdinand I, Holy Roman Emperor (1503–1564). Holy Roman Emperor from 1558, king of Bohemia and Hungary from 1526, and king of Croatia from 1527 until his death.
  • Manuel Azaña (1880–1940). Prime Minister and President of the Second Spanish Republic
  • Antonio Claudio Álvarez de Quiñones. (1670s–1736), Roman Catholic Archbishop of Bogotá
  • Pedro Obiang, professional footballer for Italian club U.S. Sassuolo Calcio
  • Roberto Sánchez (born 1989), Spanish footballer

Referenzi[immodifika | immodifika s-sors]

  1. ^ Instituto Nacional de Estadística (Spain) (bl-Ingliż). Ċitazzjoni għandu parametr mhux magħruf u vojt: |iktar= (għajnuna)
  2. ^ a b c Centre, UNESCO World Heritage. "University and Historic Precinct of Alcalá de Henares". UNESCO World Heritage Centre (bl-Ingliż). Miġbur 2022-09-09.
  3. ^ Mercedes García-Arenal; et al. (2013). The Orient in Spain: Converted Muslims. Brill. p. 367. ISBN 978-90-04-25029-1.
  4. ^ Library, New York Public (1938). Bulletin of the New York Public Library. p. 407.
  5. ^ Freund, Wilhelm (1882). Grand dictionnaire de la langue latine (bil-Franċiż). Firmin-Didot. p. 569.
  6. ^ Stoughton, John (1883). The Spanish Reformers Their Memories and Dwelling-places. Religious Tract Society. p. 21.
  7. ^ Méndez Madariaga, Antonio; Rascón Marqués, Sebastián (2003). La ciudad romana de Complutum. Guía arqueológica. Consejería de las Artes de la Comunidad de Madrid. p. 12. ISBN 84-451-2392-0.
  8. ^ García Valcárcel, Écija Moreno & Valcárcel 2001, p. 167.
  9. ^ Castillo Oreja 2006, p. 34.
  10. ^ Pérez-Bustamante, Rogelio (1986). "Pervivencia y reforma de los derechos locales en la época moderna. Un supuesto singular: el Fuero de Alcalá de Henares de 1509". En la España Medieval. Madrid: Ediciones Complutense. 9. ISSN 0214-3038. p. 747.
  11. ^ Pérez-Bustamante, Rogelio (1986). "Pervivencia y reforma de los derechos locales en la época moderna. Un supuesto singular: el Fuero de Alcalá de Henares de 1509". En la España Medieval. Madrid: Ediciones Complutense. 9. ISSN 0214-3038. p. 745.
  12. ^ Gómez López, Consuelo (1992). "La instrumentalización de los espacios urbanos en los siglos XVI y XVII: el ejemplo de la Plaza del Mercado de Alcalá de Henares". Espacio Tiempo y Forma. Serie VII, Historia del Arte. Madrid: Universidad Nacional de Educación a Distancia. 5 (5). doi:10.5944/etfvii.5.1992.2204. ISSN 1130-4715. p. 180.
  13. ^ Gómez Mendoza 2008, pp. 625–628.
  14. ^ Vadillo Muñoz, Julián (2017). "El movimiento obrero en Alcalá de Henares (1868-1939)". Bulletin d'Histoire Contemporaine de l'Espagne (51): 279–284. ISSN 1968-3723. pp. 279-284.
  15. ^ Sánchez Moltó 2014, p. 120.
  16. ^ Pagès i Blanch, Pelai (2010). "El asesinato de Andreu Nin, más datos para la polémica". Ebre (38). ISSN 1696-2672.
  17. ^ "El cadáver de Andreu Nin acusa". La Nueva España (bl-Ispanjol). 2008-03-18. Miġbur 2022-09-09.
  18. ^ Fraguas, Rafael (2008-03-24). "La fosa estaba bajo el campo de concentración" (bl-Ispanjol). Madrid. Miġbur 2022-09-09.
  19. ^ "Alcala De Henares". www.jewishvirtuallibrary.org. Miġbur 2022-09-09.
  20. ^ Aranegui & Pacheco 1927, p. 342.
  21. ^ "Radar del tiempo nacional y local, pronóstico diario, huracanes e información de The Weather Channel y weather.com". The Weather Channel (bl-Ispanjol). Miġbur 2022-09-09.