Franz Kafka

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Franz Kafka
Ħajja
Isem propju Franz Kafka
Twelid Praga, 3 Lulju 1883
Nazzjonalità Ċislejtanja
Ċekoslovakkja
Residenza Praga
Grupp etniku il-Lhud
L-ewwel lingwa Ġermaniż
Ċek
Mewt Kafka Sterbehaus (en) Translateu Kierling (en) Translate, 3 Ġunju 1924
Post tad-dfin New Jewish Cemetery (en) Translate
qabar ta' Franz Kafka
Kawża tal-mewt kawżi naturali (tuberkolosi larinġjali)
Familja
Missier Hermann Kafka
Omm Julie Kafka
Konjuga/i Not married
Koppja/i Dora Diamantová (en) Translate
Ulied
uri
  • no value
Aħwa
uri
Edukazzjoni
Alma mater Faculty of Law, German University in Prague (en) Translate
College of Philosophy of the Prague German University (en) Translate
Università Charles ta' Praga
German University in Prague (en) Translate
(1901 - 1906) Dottorat fil-Liġi : liġi
Lingwi Ġermaniż
Ċek
Għalliema Friedrich Thieberger (en) Translate
Okkupazzjoni
Okkupazzjoni rumanzier
kittieb tal-ħrejjef
novellist
aforist
djarist
traduttur
avukat
xeneġġatur
poeta ġurist
skrivan tal-assigurazzjoni
prożatur
kittieb
Impjegaturi Assicurazioni Generali (en) Translate
Allgemeine Unfallversicherungsanstalt (en) Translate
Xogħlijiet importanti The Metamorphosis (en) Translate
The Trial (en) Translate
The Castle (en) Translate
Before the Law (en) Translate
Lost in America (en) Translate
Influwenzat minn Heinrich von Kleist (en) Translate
Gustave Flaubert
Robert Walser (en) Translate
Moviment Moderniżmu
eżistenzjaliżmu
Moviment artistiku moderniżmu
letteratura Belletristika
novella
pritcha
rumanz
fizzjoni veloċi

Franz Kafka jew František Kafka[1] (twieled fit-3 ta' Lulju 1883 – miet fit-3 ta' Ġunju 1924) kien rumanzier u kittieb tal-istejjer qosra mill-Boemja li jitkellem il-Ġermaniż li kien ibbażat fi Praga,[2] u jitqies b'mod mifrux bħala wieħed mill-figuri ewlenin tal-letteratura tas-seklu 20. Ix-xogħol tiegħu fih fużjoni ta' elementi ta' realiżmu u fantastiċi. Tipikament tinkludi protagonisti iżolati li jiffaċċjaw diffikultajiet strambi jew surreali u setgħat soċjoburokratiċi mhux komprensibbli. Ix-xogħol tiegħu ġie interpretat bħala wieħed li jesplora t-temi tal-aljenazzjoni, l-ansjetà eżistenzjali, il-ħtija u l-assurdità.[3] L-iżjed xogħlijiet magħrufa tiegħu jinkludu n-novella Il-Metamorfosi u r-rumanzi Il-Proċess u Il-Kastell. It-terminu Kafkesk jew Kafkjan daħal fil-Malti biex jiddeskrivi sitwazzjonijiet assurdi bħal dawk deskritti fil-kitba tiegħu.[4]

Bijografija[immodifika | immodifika s-sors]

Kafka twieled f'familja Lhudija Ċeka ta' klassi medja li titkellem il-Ġermaniż f'Praga, il-belt kapitali tar-Renju tal-Boemja, imbagħad parti mill-Imperu Awstrijakk-Ungeriż (illum il-belt kapitali tar-Repubblika Ċeka).[5] Huwa tħarreġ bħala avukat, u wara li temm l-edukazzjoni ġuridika tiegħu ġie impjegat full-time minn kumpanija tal-assigurazzjoni. B'hekk kien obbligat jirrelega l-kitba fil-ħin liberu tiegħu. Matul ħajtu, Kafka kiteb mijiet ta' ittri lill-familja u lill-qrabat, inkluż lil missieru, li miegħu kellu relazzjoni diffikultuża u formali. Huwa tgħarras ma' diversi nisa iżda qatt ma żżewweġ. Huwa miet bit-tuberkolożi fl-1924 meta kellu 40 sena.

Kafka kien kittieb prolifiku u kien iqatta' l-biċċa l-kbira tal-ħin liberu tiegħu jikteb, spiss tard billejl. Huwa stmat li ħaraq 90 fil-mija tax-xogħol tiegħu stess minħabba li persistentement kien jissielet mad-dubji li kienu jinbtu minnu nnifsu. Ħafna mill-10 fil-mija l-oħra tax-xogħol, intilef jew inkella ma ġiex ippubblikat. Ftit mix-xogħlijiet ta' Kafka ġew ippubblikati matul ħajtu: il-ġabra ta' stejjer Kontemplazzjoni u Tabib tal-Kampanja, u l-istejjer individwali (bħan-novella tiegħu Il-Metamorfosi) ġew ippubblikati f'rivisti letterarji iżda ma tantx ingħataw attenzjoni pubblika.

Fit-testment tiegħu, Kafka ta struzzjonijiet lill-ħabib qarib u l-eżekutur letterarju tiegħu Max Brod biex jeqred ix-xogħlijiet mhux kompluti tiegħu, inkluż ir-rumanzi tiegħu Il-Proċess, Il-Kastell u Amerika, iżda Brod injora dawn l-istruzzjonijiet u ppubblika l-biċċa l-kbira tax-xogħol ta' sieħbu. Il-kitbiet ta' Kafka saru famużi fil-pajjiżi li fihom jiġi mitkellem il-Ġermaniż wara t-Tieni Gwerra Dinjija, u influwenzaw il-letteratura tagħhom. L-influwenza tax-xogħol tiegħu nfirxet fi bnadi oħra fid-dinja fis-snin 60 tas-seklu 20. Influwenza wkoll lil diversi artisti, kompożituri u filosfi.

Influwenza[immodifika | immodifika s-sors]

Dawn li ġejjin huma eżempji ta' xogħlijiet b'firxa ta' ġeneri drammatiċi, letterarji u mużikali li juru l-influwenza kulturali ta' Kafka:

Titlu Sena Mezz Rimarki Ref
Ein Landarzt 1951 opra Ta' Hans Werner Henze, ibbażata fuq il-ġrajja ta' Kafka [6]
"Ħabib ta' Kafka" 1962 storja qasira Tar-rebbieħ tal-Premju Nobel Isaac Bashevis Singer, dwar attur Jiddix imsejjaħ Jacques Kohn li qal li kien jaf lil Franz Kafka; f'din l-istorja, skont Jacques Kohn, Kafka kien jemmen fil-Golem, ħlejqa leġġendarja mill-folklor Lhudi [7]
The Trial (Il-Proċess) 1962 film Ir-reġista tal-film, Orson Welles, qal, "Għidu li tridu, imma Il-Proċess huwa l-aqwa xogħol tiegħi, saħansitra aħjar minn Citizen Kane" [8][9]
Watermelon Man (Ir-Raġel tad-Dulliegħ) 1970 film Parzjalment ispirat minn Il-Metamorfosi, fejn bigott ta' karnaġjon bajda iqum u jinduna li sar għandu karnaġjon sewda [10]
Kafka-Fragmente, Op. 24 1985 mużika Tal-kompożitur Ungeriż György Kurtág għas-soprani u l-vjolin, li uża frammenti tad-djarju u tal-ittri ta' Kafka [11]
A Letter to Elise 1992 mużika Mill-grupp mużikali rock Ingliż The Cure, influwenzata ferm mill-Ittri lil Felice ta' Kafka [12]
Kafka's Dick 1986 dramm Ta' Alan Bennett, fejn il-fatati ta' Kafka, missieru Hermann u Brod jaslu fid-dar ta' skrivan tal-assigurazzjoni Ingliż (li jħobb ħafna lil Kafka) u ta' martu [13]
Better Morphosis 1991 storja qasira Storja qasira u parodija ta' Brian W. Aldiss, fejn wurdiena tqum filgħodu u tinduna li saret Franz Kafka [14]
Kafka 1991 film Bil-protagonista Jeremy Irons bħala l-awtur Kafka; bil-kitba ta' Lem Dobbs u r-reġija ta' Steven Soderbergh, il-film iħallat xeni mill-ħajja ta' Kafka ma' xeni ta' fizzjoni u jipprovdi preżentazzjoni semibijografika tal-ħajja u tax-xogħlijiet ta' Kafka; Kafka jinvestiga l-għebien ta' wieħed mill-kollegi tiegħu, u Kafka jifli bosta mix-xogħlijiet tiegħu stess, l-iktar Il-Kastell u Il-Proċess [15]
Das Schloß 1992 opra Opra bil-Ġermaniż ta' Aribert Reimann li kiteb il-librett tiegħu stess abbażi tar-rumanz ta' Kafka u d-drammatizzazzjoni tiegħu ta' Max Brod, li fit-2 ta' Settembru 1992, fid-Deutsche Oper Berlin, ittellgħet minn Willy Decker bit-tmexxija tas-surmast Michael Boder [16]
Franz Kafka's It's a Wonderful Life 1993 film Kummiedja qasira magħmula għal BBC Scotland, li rebħet Oscar, inkitbet u ġiet diretta minn Peter Capaldi, bil-protagonista Richard E. Grant bħala Kafka [17]
Bad Mojo 1996 logħba tal-kompjuter Kemxejn ibbażata fuq Il-Metamorfosi, b'karattri msemmija Franz u Roger Samms, b'allużjoni għal Gregor Samsa [18]
In the Penal Colony 2000 opra Ta' Philip Glass, għal librett ta' Rudy Wurlitzer [19]
Kafka on the Shore 2002 rumanz Tal-kittieb Ġappuniż Haruki Murakami, fost l-Aqwa 10 Kotba tal-2005 skont The New York Times, rebbieħ tal-Premju Dinji għall-Fantasija [20]
Statue of Franz Kafka 2003 skultura Skultura fil-beraħ fi Triq Vězeňská fil-Kwartier Lhudi ta' Praga, magħmula mill-artist Jaroslav Róna [21]
Kafka's Trial 2005 opra Tal-kompożitur Daniż Poul Ruders, abbażi tar-rumanz u partijiet mill-ħajja ta' Kafka; ittellgħet għall-ewwel darba fl-2005, u maħruġa fuq CD [22]
Kafka's Soup 2005 ktieb Ta' Mark Crick, forma letterarja f'għamla ta' ktieb tat-tisjir, b'riċetti miktuba bl-istil tal-awtur famuż [23]
Kafka the Musical 2011 dramm tar-radju Ta' BBC Radio 3, prodott bħala parti mill-programm tagħhom Play of the Week. Il-parti ta' Franz Kafka nħadmet minn David Tennant [24]
Sound Interpretations – Dedication To Franz Kafka 2012 mużika HAZE Netlabel ħarġet il-kompilazzjoni mużikali Sound Interpretations – Dedication To Franz Kafka. F'dan ix-xogħol il-mużiċisti jfakkru l-wirt letterarju ta' Kafka [25]
Google Doodle 2013 kultura tal-internet Google kellha doodle ta' wurdiena b'kappell tiftaħ bieb, biex jitfakkru l-130 sena minn għeluq snin Kafka [26]
The Metamorphosis 2013 żfin Produzzjoni tar-Royal Ballet ta' Il-Metamorfosi b'Edward Watson [27]
Café Kafka 2014 opra Tal-kompożitur Spanjol Francisco Coll abbażi ta' test ta' Meredith Oakes, mibnija minn testi u frammenti ta' Franz Kafka; ikkummissjonat minn Aldeburgh Music, Opera North u Royal Opera Covent Garden [28]
Head of Franz Kafka 2014 skultura Skultura fil-beraħ fi Praga, magħmula minn David Černý [29]
VRwandlung 2018 realtà virtwali Esperjenza tar-realtà virtwali tal-ewwel parti ta' Il-Metamorfosi, bir-reġija ta' Mika Johnson [30]

Sorsi[immodifika | immodifika s-sors]

  • Alt, Peter-André (2005). Franz Kafka: Der ewige Sohn. Eine Biographie (in German). München: Verlag C.H. Beck. ISBN 978-3-406-53441-6.
  • Bathrick, David (1995). The Powers of Speech: The Politics of Culture in the GDR. Lincoln: University of Nebraska Press. ISBN 9780803212589.
  • Bergman, Hugo (1969). Memories of Franz Kafka in Franz Kafka Exhibition (Catalogue) (PDF). The Jewish National and University Library. Archived (PDF) from the original on 16 March 2019. Retrieved 19 August 2012 – via The Anarchist Library.
  • Bloom, Harold (2003). Franz Kafka. Bloom's Major Short Story Writers. New York: Chelsea House Publishers. ISBN 978-0-7910-6822-9.
  • Bloom, Harold (Spring 2011). "Franz Kafka's Zionism". Midstream. 57 (2).-left
  • Bloom, Harold (2002). Genius: A Mosaic of One Hundred Exemplary Creative Minds. New York: Warner Books. ISBN 978-0-446-52717-0.
  • Bloom, Harold (1994). The Western Canon: The Books and School of the Ages. New York: Riverhead Books, Penguin Group. ISBN 978-1-57322-514-4.
  • Bossy, Michel-André-left (2001). Artists, Writers, and Musicians: An Encyclopedia of People Who Changed the World. Westport, Connecticut: Oryx Press. ISBN 978-1-57356-154-9.
  • Boyd, Ian R. (2004). Dogmatics Among the Ruins: German Expressionism and the Enlightenment. Bern: Peter Lang AG. ISBN 978-3-03910-147-4.
  • Brod, Max (1960). Franz Kafka: A Biography. New York: Schocken Books. ISBN 978-0-8052-0047-8.
  • Brod, Max (1966). Über Franz Kafka (in German). Hamburg: S. Fischer Verlag.
  • Bruce, Iris (2007). Kafka and Cultural Zionism – Dates in Palestine. Madison, Wisconsin: University of Wisconsin Press. ISBN 978-0-299-22190-4.
  • Classe, Olive (2000). Encyclopedia of Literary Translation into English, Vol. 1. Chicago: Fitzroy Dearborn Publishers. ISBN 978-1-884964-36-7.
  • Contijoch, Francesc Miralles (2000). Franz Kafka (in Spanish). Barcelona: Oceano Grupo Editorial, S.A. ISBN 978-84-494-1811-2.
  • Corngold, Stanley (1972). Introduction to The Metamorphosis. New York: Bantam Classics. ISBN 978-0-553-21369-0.
  • Corngold, Stanley (1973). The Commentator's Despair. Port Washington, New York: Kennikat Press. ISBN 978-0-8046-9017-1.
  • Corngold, Stanley (2004). Lambent Traces: Franz Kafka. Princeton, New Jersey: Princeton University Press. ISBN 978-0-691-11816-1.
  • Corngold, Stanley (2009). Franz Kafka: The Office Writings. Princeton, New Jersey: Princeton University Press. ISBN 978-0-691-12680-7.
  • Diamant, Kathi (2003). Kafka's Last Love: The Mystery of Dora Diamant. New York: Basic Books. ISBN 978-0-465-01551-1.
  • Drucker, Peter (2002). Managing in the Next Society (2007 ed.). Oxford: Elsevier. ISBN 978-0-7506-8505-4.
  • Elsaesser, Thomas (2004). The Last Great American Picture Show. Amsterdam: Amsterdam University Press. ISBN 978-90-5356-493-6.
  • Furst, Lillian R. (1992). Through the Lens of the Reader: Explorations of European Narrative. SUNY Press. ISBN 978-0-7914-0808-7. Archived from the original on 4 December 2020. Retrieved 16 November 2015.
  • Gale Research (1979). Twentieth-Century Literary Criticism: Excerpts from Criticism of the Works of Novelists, Poets, Playwrights, Short Story Writers, & Other Creative Writers Who Died Between 1900 & 1999. Farmington Hills, Michigan: Gale Cengage Learning. ISBN 978-0-8103-0176-4.
  • Gilman, Sander (1995). Franz Kafka, the Jewish Patient. New York: Routledge. ISBN 978-0-415-91391-1.
  • Gilman, Sander (2005). Franz Kafka. London: Reaktion Books. ISBN 978-1-881872-64-1.
  • Gray, Richard T. (2005). A Franz Kafka Encyclopedia. Westport, Connecticut: Greenwood Press. ISBN 978-0-313-30375-3.
  • Gray, Ronald (1973). Franz Kafka. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. ISBN 978-0-521-20007-3.
  • Hamalian, Leo (1974). Franz Kafka: A Collection of Criticism. New York: McGraw-Hill. ISBN 978-0-07-025702-3.
  • Hawes, James (2008). Why You Should Read Kafka Before You Waste Your Life. New York: St. Martin's Press. ISBN 978-0-312-37651-2.
  • Janouch, Gustav (1971). Conversations with Kafka (2 ed.). New York: New Directions Books. p. 17. ISBN 978-0-8112-0071-4. Retrieved 16 November 2015.
  • Kafka, Franz (1948). The Penal Colony: Stories and Short Pieces (1987 ed.). New York: Schocken Books. ISBN 978-0-8052-3198-4.
  • Kafka, Franz (1954). Dearest Father: Stories and Other Writings. New York: Schocken Books.
  • Kafka, Franz (1988). The Castle. New York: Schocken Books. ISBN 978-0-8052-0872-6.
  • Kafka, Franz (1996). The Metamorphosis and Other Stories. New York: Barnes & Noble. ISBN 978-1-56619-969-8.
  • Kafka, Franz (1998). The Trial. New York: Schocken Books. ISBN 978-0-8052-0999-0.
  • Kafka, Franz (2009). The Trial. Oxford: Oxford University Press. ISBN 978-0-19-923829-3.
  • Kafka, Franz (1988). Brod, Max (ed.). The Diaries: 1910–1923. New York: Schocken Books. ISBN 978-0-8052-0906-8.
  • Kahn, Lothar; Hook, Donald D. (1993). Between Two Worlds: A Cultural History of German-Jewish Writers. Ames, Iowa: Iowa State University Press. ISBN 978-0-8138-1233-5.
  • Karl, Frederick R. (1991). Franz Kafka: Representative Man. Boston: Ticknor & Fields. ISBN 978-0-395-56143-0.
  • Koelb, Clayton (2010). Kafka: A Guide for the Perplexed. Chippenham, Wiltshire: Continuum International Publishing Group. ISBN 978-0-8264-9579-2.
  • Krolop, Kurt (1994). Kafka und Prag (in German). Prague: Goethe-Institut. ISBN 978-3-11-014062-0.
  • Lachkar, Joan (1992). The Narcissistic/Borderline Couple. Philadelphia: Brunner/Mazel. ISBN 978-0-87630-634-5.
  • Miller, Alice (1984). Thou Shalt Not Be Aware: Society's Betrayal of the Child. New York: Farrar, Straus, Giroux. ISBN 978-0-9567982-1-3.
  • Murray, Nicholas (2004). Kafka. New Haven, Connecticut: Yale University Press. ISBN 978-0-300-10631-2.
  • Newmark, Peter (1991). About Translation. Wiltshire, England: Cromwell Press. ISBN 978-1-85359-117-4.
  • Northey, Anthony (1997). Mišpoche Franze Kafky (in Czech). Prague: Nakladatelství Primus. ISBN 978-80-85625-45-5.
  • O'Neill, Patrick M. (2004). Great World Writers: Twentieth Century. Tarrytown, New York: Marshal Cavendish. ISBN 978-0-7614-7477-7.
  • Palmer, R. Barton (2004). Joel and Ethan Coen. Urbana, Illinois: University of Illinois Press. ISBN 978-0-252-07185-0.
  • Pawel, Ernst (1985). The Nightmare of Reason: A Life of Franz Kafka. New York: Vintage Books. ISBN 978-0-374-52335-0.
  • Preece, Julian (2001). The Cambridge Companion to Kafka. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. ISBN 978-0-521-66391-5.
  • Rothkirchen, Livia (2005). The Jews of Bohemia and Moravia: Facing the Holocaust. Lincoln, Nebraska: University of Nebraska Press. ISBN 978-0-8032-3952-4.
  • Silverman, Al, ed. (1986). The Book of the Month: Sixty Years of Books in American Life. Boston: Little, Brown. ISBN 978-0-316-10119-6.
  • Singer, Isaac Bashevis (1970). A Friend of Kafka, and Other Stories. New York: Farrar, Straus and Giroux. ISBN 978-0-374-15880-4.
  • Sokel, Walter H. (2001). The Myth of Power and the Self: Essays on Franz Kafka. Detroit: Wayne State University Press. ISBN 978-0-8143-2608-4.
  • Spector, Scott (2000). Prague Territories: National Conflict and Cultural Innovation in Franz Kafka's Fin de Siècle. Berkeley: University of California Press. ISBN 978-0-520-23692-9.
  • Stach, Reiner (2005). Kafka: The Decisive Years. New York: Harcourt. ISBN 978-0-15-100752-3.
  • Sussman, Henry (1979). Franz Kafka: Geometrician of Metaphor. Madison, Wisconsin: Coda Press. ISBN 978-0-930956-02-8.
  • Ziolkowski, Theodore (2003). The Mirror of Justice: Literary Reflections of Legal Crisis. Princeton, New Jersey: Princeton University Press. ISBN 978-0-691-11470-5.

Ġurnali[immodifika | immodifika s-sors]

  • Adams, Jeffrey (2002). "Orson Welles's The Trial: Film Noir and the Kafkaesque". College Literature, Literature and the Visual Arts. West Chester, Pennsylvania. 29 (3): 140–157. JSTOR 25112662.
  • Aizenberg, Edna (1986). "Kafkaesque Strategy and Anti-Peronist Ideology Martinez Estrada's Stories as Socially Symbolic Acts". Latin American Literary Review. Chicago. 14 (28): 11–19. JSTOR 20119426.
  • Banakar, Reza (2010). "In Search of Heimat: A Note on Franz Kafka's Concept of Law". Law and Literature. Berkeley, California. 22 (2). doi:10.2139/ssrn.1574870. SSRN 1574870.
  • Butler, Judith (2011). "Who Owns Kafka". London Review of Books. London. 33 (5). Archived from the original on 3 December 2019.
  • Corngold, Stanley (2011). "Kafkas Spätstil/Kafka's Late Style: Introduction". Monatshefte. Madison, Wisconsin. 103 (3): 339–343. doi:10.1353/mon.2011.0069. S2CID 219195741.
  • Dembo, Arinn (June 1996). "Twilight of the Cockroach: Bad Mojo Evokes Kafka So Well It'll Turn Your Stomach" (PDF). Computer Gaming World. No. 143. New York. Archived (PDF) from the original on 2 October 2014. Retrieved 9 February 2020.
  • Dodd, W. J. (1994). "Kafka and Dostoyevsky: The Shaping of Influence". Comparative Literature Studies. State College, Pennsylvania. 31 (2): 165–168. JSTOR 40246931.
  • Durantaye, Leland de la (2007). "Kafka's Reality and Nabokov's Fantasy: On Dwarves, Saints, Beetles, Symbolism and Genius" (PDF). Comparative Literature. 59 (4): 315. doi:10.1215/-59-4-315. S2CID 7056408.
  • Fichter, Manfred M. (1987). "The Anorexia Nervosa of Franz Kafka". International Journal of Eating Disorders. Washington, D.C. 6 (3): 367. doi:10.1002/1098-108X(198705)6:3<367::AID-EAT2260060306>3.0.CO;2-W.
  • Fichter, Manfred M. (1988). "Franz Kafka's anorexia nervosa". Fortschritte der Neurologie · Psychiatrie (in German). Munich. 56 (7): 231–238. doi:10.1055/s-2007-1001787. PMID 3061914.
  • Fort, Jeff (March 2006). "The Man Who Could Not Disappear". The Believer.
  • Glen, Patrick J. (2007). "The Deconstruction and Reification of Law in Franz Kafka's Before the Law and The Trial" (PDF). Southern California Interdisciplinary Law Journal. Los Angeles. 17 (23).
  • Glen, Patrick J. (2011). "Franz Kafka, Lawrence Joseph, and the Possibilities of Jurisprudential Literature" (PDF). Southern California Interdisciplinary Law Journal. Los Angeles. 21 (47).
  • Horton, Scott (2008). "In Pursuit of Kafka's Porn Cache: Six Questions for James Hawes". Harper's Magazine.
  • Hughes, Kenneth (1986). "Franz Kafka: An Anthology of Marxist Criticism". Monatshefte. Madison, Wisconsin. 78 (2): 247–250. JSTOR 30159253.
  • Kavanagh, Thomas M. (1972). "Kafka's The Trial: The Semiotics of the Absurd". Novel: A Forum on Fiction. Durham, North Carolina. 5 (3): 242–253. doi:10.2307/1345282. JSTOR 1345282.
  • Kempf, Franz R. (2005). "Franz Kafkas Sprachen: '... in einem Stockwerk des innern babylonischen Turmes. ..'". Shofar: An Interdisciplinary Journal of Jewish Studies. West Lafayette, Indiana. 23 (4): 159. doi:10.1353/sho.2005.0155. S2CID 170581064.
  • Keren, Michael (1993). "The 'Prague Circle' and the Challenge of Nationalism". History of European Ideas. Oxford. 16 (1–3): 3. doi:10.1016/S0191-6599(05)80096-8.
  • Kundera, Milan (1988). "Kafka's World". The Wilson Quarterly. Washington, D.C. 12 (5): 88–99. JSTOR 40257735.
  • Lawson, Richard H. (Mejju 1960). "Ungeheueres Ungeziefer in Kafka's "Die Verwandlung"". The German Quarterly. Cherry Hill, New Jersey. 33 (3): 216–219. doi:10.2307/402242. JSTOR 402242.
  • Leiter, Louis H. (1958). "A Problem in Analysis: Franz Kafka's 'A Country Doctor'". The Journal of Aesthetics and Art Criticism. Philadelphia. 16 (3): 337–347. doi:10.2307/427381. JSTOR 427381.
  • Luke, F. D. (April 1951). "Kafka's 'Die Verwandlung'". The Modern Language Review. Cambridge. 46 (2): 232–245. doi:10.2307/3718565. JSTOR 3718565.
  • McElroy, Bernard (1985). "The Art of Projective Thinking: Franz Kafka and the Paranoid Vision". Modern Fiction Studies. Cambridge. 31 (2): 217. doi:10.1353/mfs.0.0042. S2CID 170564041.
  • Panichas, George A. (2004). "Kafka's Afflicted Vision: A Literary-Theological Critique" (PDF). Humanitas. Bowie, Maryland. 17 (1–2).
  • Pérez-Álvarez, Marino (2003). "The Schizoid Personality of Our Time" (PDF). International Journal of Psychology and Psychological Therapy. Almería, Spanja. 3 (2).
  • Rhine, Marjorie E. (1989). "Untangling Kafka's Knotty Texts: The Translator's Prerogative?". Monatshefte. Madison, Wisconsin. 81 (4): 447–458. JSTOR 30166262.
  • Sayer, Derek (1996). "The Language of Nationality and the Nationality of Language: Prague 1780–1920". Past and Present. Oxford. 153 (1): 164. doi:10.1093/past/153.1.164. OCLC 394557.
  • Sandbank, Shimon (1992). "After Kafka: The Influence of Kafka's Fiction". Comparative Literature Studies. Oxford. 29 (4): 441–443. JSTOR 40246852.
  • Sokel, Walter H. (April–Mejju 1956). "Kafka's 'Metamorphosis': Rebellion and Punishment" (PDF). Monatshefte. Madison, Wisconsin. 48 (4): 203–214. JSTOR 30166165.
  • Steinhauer, Harry (1983). "Franz Kafka: A World Built on a Lie". The Antioch Review. Yellow Springs, Ohio. 41 (4): 390–408. doi:10.2307/4611280. JSTOR 4611280.
  • Strelka, Joseph P. (1984). "Kafkaesque Elements in Kafka's Novels and in Contemporary Narrative Prose". Comparative Literature Studies. Pennsylvania State College. 21 (4): 434–444. JSTOR 40246504.
  • Updike, John (2005). "Subconscious Tunnels: Haruki Murakami's Dreamlike New Novel". The New Yorker.

Gazzetti[immodifika | immodifika s-sors]

  • Mareş, Ionuţ (2014). "Mircea Cărtărescu: Franz Kafka este sfântul literaturii" [Mircea Cărtărescu: Franz Kafka is a saint of literature] (bir-Rumen).
  • Adler, Jeremy (1995). "Stepping into Kafka's Head". The New York Times Literary Supplement.
  • Akalaitis, JoAnne (2001). "Adapting the Horrors of a Kafka Story To Suit Glass's Music". The New York Times.
  • Apel, Friedman (2012). "Der Weg in die Ewigkeit führt abwärts / Roland Reuß kramt in Kafkas Zürauer Zetteln". Frankfurter Allgemeine Zeitung (bil-Ġermaniż).
  • Banville, John (2011). "Franz Kafka's Other Trial / An Allegory of the Fallen Man's Predicament, or an Expression of Guilt at a Tormented Love Affair?". The Guardian. Londra.
  • Buehrer, Jack (2011). "Battle for Kafka Legacy Drags On". The Prague Post.
  • Burrows, William (2011). "Winter Read: The Castle by Franz Kafka". The Guardian. Londra.
  • Connolly, Kate (2008). "Porn Claims Outrage German Kafka Scholars". The Guardian. Londra.
  • Glazer, Hilo (2017). "A Final Note From Kafka, a Trove of Manuscripts, and a Trial That Left an Israeli Heiress 'Destitute'". Haaretz.
  • Herbort, Heinz Josef (1992). "Franz Kafkas Roman "Das Schloß" als Musiktheater: Aribert Reimanns sechste Oper in Berlin uraufgeführt: Rundtanz um den Tabernakel der Bürokratie". Die Zeit (bil-Ġermaniż). p. 23.
  • Jeal, Erica (2014). "The Commission/Café Kafka, Royal Opera/Opera North/Aldeburgh Music – Review". The Guardian. Londra.
  • Kakutani, Michiko (1988). "Books of the Times; Kafka's Kafkaesque Love Letters". The New York Times.
  • Kenley-Letts, Ruth (1993). "Franz Kafka's "It's a Wonderful Life" (1993)". Movies & TV Dept. The New York Times.
  • Kirsch, Adam (2009). "America, 'Amerika'". The New York Times.
  • Lerman, Antony (2010). "The Kafka legacy: Who Owns Jewish Heritage?". The Guardian. Londra.
  • McCarthy, Rory (2009). "Israel's National Library Adds a Final Twist to Franz Kafka's Trial". The Guardian. Londra.
  • McLellan, Dennis (2009). "Patrick McGoohan Dies at 80; TV's 'Secret Agent' and 'Prisoner'". Los Angeles Times.
  • Metcalfe, Anna (2009). "Small Talk: José Saramago". Financial Times.
  • O'Connor, John J. (1987). "McGoohan a Spy on 31". The New York Times.
  • Rizzulo, Rachel (2013). "The Royal Ballet's Production of The Metamorphosis with Edward Watson in New York". bachtrack.
  • Rudoren, Jodi; Noveck, Myra (2012). "Woman Must Relinquish Kafka Papers, Judge Says". The New York Times.
  • Tran, Mark (2010). "Lawyers Open Cache of Unpublished Kafka Manuscripts". The Guardian. Londra.

Sorsi online[immodifika | immodifika s-sors]

  • Bury, Liz (2013). "Franz Kafka's Metamorphosis Becomes Google Doodle". The Guardian. Londra.
  • Coker, Rachel (2012). "Kafka Expert Links Teaching, Research". Binghamton: State University of New York.
  • Ernst, Nathan (2010). "The Judgement". The Modernismm Lab. Yale University.
  • Frenkel, Sheera (2012). "Kafka's Final Absurdist Tale Plays Out in Tel Aviv". NPR.
  • Ghosh, Pothik (2009). "A Note on Kafka and the Question of Revolutionary Subjectivity". Hindu College – Delhi University.
  • Horstkotte, Silke (2009). "Kunst und Künstlerverständnis in Kafkas 'Josefine, die Sängering oder Das Volk der Mäuse'" (bil-Ġermaniż). L-Università ta' Leipzig.
  • Kafka, Franz (2012). "Franz Kafka Letter to his Father". Kafka-Franz.
  • Keynes, Laura (Awwissu 2005). "Kafka's Dick". Times Literary Supplement.
  • Köhler, Manfred (2012). "Franz Kafka und Felice Bauer" (in German). Protemion.
  • Kreis, Steven (2006). "Franz Kafka, 1883–1924". History Guide.
  • Milner, Catherine (2005). "If Kafka Made the Dinner..." The Telegraph.
  • Miron, Dan (2008). "Sadness in Palestine". Haaretz.
  • Ozorio, Anne (2010). "György Kurtág – Kafka Fragments, London". Opera Today.
  • Prinsky, Norman (2002). "Humn. 2002: World Humanities II. Notes and Questions on Franz Kafka's "The Metamorphosis" / "The Transformation"". Augusta State University.
  • Rahn, Josh (2011). "Existentialism". Online Literature.
  • Rastalsky, Hartmut M. (1997). "The Referential Kafka". University of Michigan.
  • Samuelson, Arthur. "A Kafka for the 21st Century". Jewish Heritage.
  • Seubert, Harald. "Bauer, Felice" (bil-Ġermaniż). Kulturportal-west-ost.eu. Knochiges leeres Gesicht, das seine Leere offen trug. Freier Hals. Überworfene Bluse ... Fast zerbrochene Nase. Blondes, etwas steifes, reizloses Haar, starkes Kinn.
  • Stone, Peter H. (1981). "Gabriel Garcia Marquez, The Art of Fiction No. 69". The Paris Review. Xitwa 1981 (82).
  • "Allegory". The Guardian. Londra. 1930.
  • "Disappearing Act". American Repertory Theatre. 2005.
  • "Drama on BBC Radio 3, Kafka the Musical". BBC. 2012.
  • "Franz Kafka" (biċ-Ċek). The Research Library of South Bohemia in České Budějovice. 2011.
  • "Franz Kafka – Articles". European Graduate School. 2012.
  • "Franz Kafka – Biography". European Graduate School. 2012.
  • "Ein Landarzt Rundfunkoper auf die Erzählung von Franz Kafka" (bil-Ġermaniż). Hans Werner Henze Stiftung.
  • "Franz Kafka and Libertarian Socialism". Libertarian-Socialism. 2008.
  • "Franz Kafka Museum". Franz Kafka Museum. 2005.
  • "The Franz Kafka Prize". Franz Kafka Society. 2011.
  • "Franz Kafka: Tagebücher 1910–1923 – Kapitel 5". Der Spiegel (bil-Ġermaniż). Project Gutenberg – Spiegel Online. 1913. Die ungeheure Welt, die ich im Kopfe habe. Aber wie mich befreien und sie befreien, ohne zu zerreißen. Und tausendmal lieber zerreißen, als in mir sie zurückhalten oder begraben. Dazu bin ich ja hier, das ist mir ganz klar.
  • "Franz Kafka Writing". Kafka-Franz. 2011.
  • "Franz Kafka: Writing of the System's Despair and Alienation". Socialist Worker (Britain). Socialist Worker Online. 2007.
  • "Faksimiles der Kafka-Drucke zu Lebzeiten (Zeitschriften und Zeitungen)" (bil-Ġermaniż). ITK Institut für Textkritik. 2008.
  • "Grete Bloch" (bil-Ġermaniż). S. Fischer Verlag.
  • "Kafka". New York State Writer's Institute. State University of New York.
  • "Lothar Hempel". Atlegerhardsen. 2002.
  • "Musils 'Mann ohne Eigenschaften' ist 'wichtigster Roman des Jahrhunderts'" (bil-Ġermaniż). LiteraturHaus. 1999.
  • "Orson Welles on The Trial (BBC interview)". Welles Net. 1962.
  • "Oxford Kafka Research Centre". University of Oxford. 2012.
  • "Poul Ruders Biography – 06/2005". Poul Ruders. 2005.
  • "Solving a Literary Mystery". Kafka Project, San Diego State University. 2012.
  • "Sound Interpretations – Dedication To Franz Kafka". HAZE Netlabel. 2012.
  • "Who Is Citizen? Guide to Czech Citizenship in 1918–1949". L-Ambaxxata taċ-Ċekja f'Tel Aviv. 2012.
  • "Doctor of Law 18 June 1906 - Registry books of the German University in Prague, inventory No. 3, Registry book of doctors of the German Charles-Ferdinand University in Prague/German University in Prague (1904–1924), page 42". Charles University Prague.
  • "Exam 22 March 1906 - Faculty of Law of the German University in Prague, Books of examination protocols of State Examination Commissions, inventory No. 75, State Scientific State Examination Commission at the German Charles-Ferdinand University in Prague (1905-1906), page 8595". Charles University Prague.
  • "Exam 23 (Nov?) 1905 - Faculty of Law of the German University in Prague, Books of examination protocols of State Examination Commissions, inventory No. 44, Judicial State Examination Commission at the German Charles-Ferdinand University in Prague (1905-1907), page 10639". Charles University Prague.
  • "Exam 18 July 1903 - Faculty of Law of the German University in Prague, Books of examination protocols of State Examination Commissions, inventory No. 10, Juridical Historical State Examination Commission at the German Charles-Ferdinand University in Prague (1902-1903), page 12789". Charles University Prague.

Iktar qari[immodifika | immodifika s-sors]

  • Duttlinger, Carolin (2007). Kafka and Photography. Oxford: Oxford University Press. ISBN 978-0-19-921945-2.
  • Duttlinger, Carolin (2013). The Cambridge Introduction to Franz Kafka. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. ISBN 978-0-521-75771-3.
  • Gray, Ronald (1962). Kafka: A Collection of Critical Essays. Englewood Cliffs, New Jersey: Prentice-Hall. ISBN 978-1-199-77830-7.
  • Greenberg, Martin (1968). The Terror of Art: Kafka and Modern Literature. New York: Basic Books. ISBN 978-0-465-08415-9.
  • Deleuze, Gilles; Guattari, Félix (1986). Kafka: Toward a Minor Literature. Theory and History of Literature. Vol. 30. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press. ISBN 978-0-8166-1515-5.
  • Glatzer, Nahum Norbert (1986). The Loves of Franz Kafka. New York: Schocken Books. ISBN 978-0-8052-4001-6.
  • Glasauer, Willi (1986). Exposición Kafka & CIA.: Hitos y Mitos de la Cultura Dibujos (in Spanish). Barcelona: Círculo de Lectores.
  • Glasauer, Willi (1986). Kafka Gesamtwerk. Barcelona: Círculo de Lectores.
  • Citati, Pietro (1987). Kafka. New York: Alfred A. Knopf. ISBN 978-0-394-56840-9.
  • Montalbán, Manuel Vázquez; Glasauer, Willi (1988). Escenas de la Literatura Universal y Retratos de Grandes Autores (in Spanish). Barcelona: Círculo de Lectores.
  • Heller, Paul (1989). Franz Kafka: Wissenschaft und Wissenschaftskritik (bil-Ġermaniż). Tübingen: Stauffenburg. ISBN 978-3-923721-40-5.
  • Czech, Danuta (1992). Kalendarz wydarzeń w KL Auschwitz (bil-Pollakk). Oświęcim: Wydawn.
  • Kopić, Mario (1995). "Franz Kafka and Nationalism". Erewhon: An International Quarterly. Amsterdam. 2 (2).
  • Hayman, Ronald (1981). K: A Biography of Kafka. Londra: Phoenix Press. ISBN 978-1-84212-415-4.
  • Coots, Steve (2002). Franz Kafka (Beginner's Guide). Londra: Hodder & Stoughton. ISBN 978-0-340-84648-3.
  • Calasso, Roberto (2005). K. Tradott minn Geoffrey Brock. New York: Alfred A. Knopf. ISBN 978-1-4000-4189-3.
  • Begley, Louis (2008). The Tremendous World I Have Inside My Head, Franz Kafka: A Biographical Essay. New York: Atlas & Co. ISBN 978-1-934633-06-9.
  • Corngold, Stanley; Wagner, Benno (2011). Franz Kafka: The Ghosts in the Machine. Evanston, Illinois: Northwestern University Press. ISBN 978-0-8101-2769-2.
  • Corngold, Stanley; Gross, Ruth V. (2011). Kafka for the Twenty-First Century. New York: Camden House. ISBN 978-1-57113-482-0.
  • Lundberg, Phillip (2011). Essential Kafka: Rendezvous with Otherness. Authorhouse. ISBN 978-1-4389-9021-7.
  • Major, Michael (2011). Kafka ... For Our Time. San Diego, California: Harcourt Publishing. ISBN 978-0-9567982-1-3.
  • Suchoff, David (2012). Kafka's Jewish Languages: The Hidden Openness of Tradition. Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press. ISBN 978-0-8122-4371-0.
  • Thiher, Allen (1990). Franz Kafka: A Study of the Short Fiction. Twayne's Studies in Short Fiction. Vol. 12. Boston: Twayne Publishers. ISBN 0805783237.
  • Thiher, Allen (2018). Understanding Franz Kafka. Columbia, SC: University of South Carolina Press. ISBN 9781611178289.
  • Baruffi, Alessandro (2016). The Tales of Franz Kafka. Traduzzjoni bl-Ingliż bit-Test Oriġinali bil-Ġermaniż. Philadelphia, Pennsylvania: LiteraryJoint Press. ISBN 978-1-329-82109-5.
  • Robertson, Ritchie, Kafka: A Very Short Introduction (Oxford: OUP, 2004); edizzjoni bl-illustrazzjonijiet bit-titlu Kafka: A Brief Insight (New York: Sterling Publishing Co., Inc., 2010)

Ġurnali[immodifika | immodifika s-sors]

  • Ryan, Michael P. (1999). "Samsa and Samsara: Suffering, Death and Rebirth in 'The Metamorphosis'". German Quarterly. Durham, North Carolina. 72 (2): 133–152. doi:10.2307/408369. JSTOR 408369. S2CID 59481029.
  • Kopić, Mario (2004). "Kafka and Nationalism". Odjek.
  • Danta, Chris (April 2008). "Sarah's Laughter: Kafka's Abraham". Modernism/Modernity. Baltimore, Maryland. 15 (2): 343–359. doi:10.1353/mod.2008.0048. S2CID 170492502.
  • Jirsa, Tomáš (2015). "Reading Kafka Visually: Gothic Ornament and the Motion of Writing in Kafka's Der Process" (PDF). Central Europe. Londra. 13 (1–2): 36–50. doi:10.1080/14790963.2015.1107322. S2CID 159892429.
  • McGee, Kyle. "Fear and Trembling in the Penal Colony". Kafka Project.

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