Teżawru

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Teżawru

Teżawru jew dizzjunarju tas-sinonimi huwa xogħol ta' referenza għas-sejbien ta' sinonimi u xi kultant antonimi tal-kliem. Spiss teżawru jintuża mill-kittieba sabiex jgħinhom isibu l-aqwa kelma biex jesprimu idea.

Id-dizzjunarji tas-sinonimi għandhom storja twila. Il-kelma "teżawru" ntużat għall-ewwel darba fl-1852 minn Peter Mark Roget għat-teżawru tiegħu Roget's Thesaurus.[1]

Filwaqt li xi teżawri, bħal dak ta' Roget, jiġbru flimkien il-kliem f'tassonomija ipernimika ġerarka ta' kunċetti, oħrajn jorganizzawhom alfabetikament jew b'modi oħra.

Il-biċċa l-kbira tat-teżawri ma jinkludux definizzjonijiet, iżda ħafna dizzjunarji jinkludu listi ta' sinonimi.

Xi teżawri u noti dwar is-sinonimi fid-dizzjunarji jikkaratterizzaw id-distinzjonijiet bejn kliem simili, b'noti dwar "il-konnotazzjonijiet u sfumaturi varji tat-tifsira"[2] tagħhom. Xi dizzjunarji tas-sinonimi primarjament jiddifferenzjaw is-sinonimi skont it-tifsira u l-użu. Il-manwali tal-użu bħal A Dictionary of Modern English Usage ta' Fowler spiss jagħtu gwida dwar l-użu xieraq tas-sinonimi.

Xi kultant it-teżawri jintużaw biex tiġi evitata r-ripetizzjoni tal-kliem, u minflok ikun hemm varjazzjoni eleganti, li ħafna drabi tiġi kkritikata mill-manwali tal-użu: "il-kittieba xi kultant jużawhom mhux biss sabiex ivarjaw il-vokabularji tagħhom iżda biex ilibbsuhom wisq".[3]

Etimoloġija[immodifika | immodifika s-sors]

Il-kelma "teżawru" ġejja mil-Latin thēsaurus, li min-naħa l-oħra ġejja mill-Grieg θησαυρός (thēsauros) li tfisser "teżor, maħżen". L-etimoloġija tal-kelma thēsauros mhix ċerta.[4][5]

Sas-seklu 19, teżawru kien kwalunkwe dizzjunarju jew enċiklopedija, bħat-Thesaurus Linguae Latinae (Dizzjunarju tal-Lingwa Latina, 1532), u t-Thesaurus Linguae Graecae (Dizzjunarju tal-Lingwa Griega, 1572). Kien Roget li introduċa t-tifsira ta' "ġabra ta' kliem irranġati skont it-tifsira", fl-1852.[4]

Storja[immodifika | immodifika s-sors]

Fi żmien il-qedem, Filone ta' Byblos kien l-awtur tal-ewwel test li issa kieku jista' jissejjaħ teżawru. Bis-Sanskritu, l-Amarakosha huwa teżawru f'forma ta' versi, li ġie miktub fis-seklu 4.

L-istudju tas-sinonimi sar tema importanti fil-filosofija tas-seklu 18, u Condillac kiteb, iżda qatt ma ppubblika, dizzjunarju tas-sinonimi.[6]

Xi dizzjunarji bikrin tas-sinonimi jinkludu:

  • John Wilkins, An Essay Towards a Real Character, and a Philosophical Language u Alphabetical Dictionary (1668) huma "elenkar u deskrizzjoni regolari tal-affarijiet u tan-nozzjonijiet kollha li għandhom isem". Mhumiex espliċitament dizzjunarji tas-sinonimi — fil-fatt, lanqas biss jużaw il-kelma "sinonimu" — iżda jiġbru flimkien is-sinonimi.[7][8][9]
  • Gabriel Girard, La Justesse de la langue françoise, ou les différentes significations des mots qui passent pour synonymes (1718).[10]
  • John Trusler, The Difference between Words esteemed Synonyms, in the English Language; and the proper choice of them determined (1766).[11]
  • Hester Lynch Piozzi, British Synonymy (1794).[12]
  • James Leslie, Dictionary of the Synonymous Words and Technical Terms in the English Language (1806).[13]
  • George Crabb, English Synonyms Explained (1818).[14]

Roget's Thesaurus, li ġie kkompilat għall-ewwel darba fl-1805 minn Peter Mark Roget, u li ġie ppubblikat fl-1852, isegwi l-arranġament semantiku ta' John Wilkins tal-1668. Għad-differenza ta' dizzjunarji iktar bikrin tas-sinonimi, ma fihx definizzjonijiet jew jimmira li jgħin lill-utent jagħżel fost is-sinonomi. Ilu jiġi stampat kontinwament mill-1852, u għadu jintuża b'mod wiesa' fost il-kelliema tal-Ingliż.[15]

Wieħed mill-iktar teżawri li għadu jintuża għall-Malti huwa Id-Dizzjunarju Malti u Teżawru tal-Malti Mħaddem ta' Erin Serracino Inglott.[16]

Bilingwi[immodifika | immodifika s-sors]

Id-dizzjunarji tas-sinonimi bilingwi huma maħsuba għal dawk li jkunu qed jitgħallmu l-lingwi. Ġeneralment dawn ikunu organizzati b'mod alfabetiku minn lingwa għall-oħra u bil-kontra, bit-traduzzjoni u ġieli xi eżempju kif jintuża l-kliem. Inkella jkunu organizzati b'mod tassonomiku, bl-eżempji, it-traduzzjoni u xi noti dwar l-użu.[17]

Xjenza informatika u pproċessar tal-lingwa naturali[immodifika | immodifika s-sors]

Fix-xjenza tal-informatika u tal-libreriji, teżawru huwa tip ta' vokabularju kkontrollat.

Teżawru jista' jifforma parti minn ontoloġija u jiġi rrappreżentat f'Sistema Sempliċi ta' Organizzazzjoni tal-Għarfien (SKOS).[18]

It-teżawri jintużaw fl-ipproċessar tal-lingwa naturali għad-diżambigwità tat-tifsiriet tal-kliem u għas-simplifikazzjoni tat-test għas-sistemi tat-traduzzjoni awtomatizzata.[19]

Ara wkoll[immodifika | immodifika s-sors]

Biblijografija[immodifika | immodifika s-sors]

  • W.E. Collinson, "Comparative Synonymics: Some Principles and Illustrations", Transactions of the Philological Society 38:1:54-77, Novembru 1939.
  • Gerda Hassler, "Lafaye's Dictionnaire des synonymes in the History of Semantics" f'Sheli Embleton, John E. Joseph, Hans-Josef Hiederehe, The Emergence of the Modern Language Sciences, John Benjamins 1999, ISBN 1556197594, p. 1:27-40.
  • Werner Hüllen, "Roget's Thesaurus, deconstructed" f'Historical Dictionaries and Historical Dictionary Research, saġġi mill-International Conference on Historical Lexicography and Lexicology, l-Università ta' Leicester, 2002, Max Niemeyer Verlag 2004, ISBN 3484391235, p. 83-94.
  • Werner Hüllen, A history of Roget's thesaurus : origins, development, and design, Oxford University Press 2004, ISBN 0199254729.
  • Werner Hüllen, Networks and Knowledge in Roget's Thesaurus, Oxford, Jannar 2009, ISBN 0199553238.
  • Gertrude E. Noyes, "The Beginnings of the Study of Synonyms in England", Publications of the Modern Language Association of America (PMLA) 66:6:951-970 (Diċembru 1951), JSTOR 460151.
  • Eric Stanley, "Polysemy and Synonymy and how these Concepts were Understood from the Eighteenth Century onwards in Treatises, and Applied in Dictionaries of English" f'Historical Dictionaries and Historical Dictionary Research, papers from the International Conference on Historical Lexicography and Lexicology, l-Università ta' Leicester, 2002, Max Niemeyer Verlag 2004, ISBN 3484391235, p. 157-184.

Referenzi[immodifika | immodifika s-sors]

  1. ^ Roget, Peter. 1852. Thesaurus of English Language Words and Phrases.
  2. ^ American Heritage Dictionary of the English Language, 5th edition, Houghton Mifflin Harcourt 2011, ISBN 9780547041018, p. xxvii.
  3. ^ Edwin L. Battistella, "Beware the thesaurus", OUPblog, "Oxford University Press's Academic Insights for the Thinking World", il-11 ta' Frar 2018.
  4. ^ a b "thesaurus | Origin and meaning of thesaurus by Online Etymology Dictionary". www.etymonline.com (bl-Ingliż). Miġbur 2021-08-01.
  5. ^ R. S. P. Beekes, Etymological Dictionary of Greek, Brill, 2009, p. 548.
  6. ^ B. Lafaye, Dictionnaire des synonymes de la langue française, Hachette 1869, it-tielet edizzjoni.
  7. ^ John Wilkins, An Essay Towards a Real Character, and a Philosophical Language, Londra, 1668. Test sħiħ
  8. ^ John Wilkins, William Lloyd (anonimament), An Alphabetical Dictionary Wherein all English Words According to their Various Significations, Are either referred to their Places in the Philosophical Tables, Or explained by such Words as are in those Tables, Londra, 1668. Test sħiħ.
  9. ^ Natascia Leonardi, "An Analysis of a Seventeenth Century Conceptual Dictionary with an Alphabetical List of Entries and a Network Definition Structure: John Wilkins' and William Lloyd's An Alphabetical Dictionary (1668)" in Historical Dictionaries and Historical Dictionary Research, papers from the International Conference on Historical Lexicography and Lexicology, University of Leicester, 2002, Max Niemeyer Verlag 2004, ISBN 3484391235, p. 39-52.
  10. ^ Gabriel Girard, La Justesse de la langue françoise, ou les différentes significations des mots qui passent pour synonymes, Pariġi, 1718. Test sħiħ.
  11. ^ John Trusler (anonymously), The Difference between Words esteemed Synonyms, in the English Language; and the proper choice of them determined, Londra, 1766. Test sħiħ.
  12. ^ Hester Lynch Piozzi, British Synonymy; or, an Attempt Regulating the Choice of Words in Familiar Conversation, Dublin, 1794. Test sħiħ.
  13. ^ James Leslie, Dictionary of the Synonymous Words and Technical Terms in the English Language, Edinburgu, 1806. Test sħiħ.
  14. ^ George Crabb, English Synonyms Explained, in Alphabetical Order with Copious Illustrations and Examples Drawn from the Best Writers, 2nd edition, Londra, 1818. Test sħiħ.
  15. ^ Hüllen, Werner. Introduction (bl-Ingliż). Oxford University Press.
  16. ^ "Id-Dizzjunarju Malti u Teżawru Ta' Malti Mħaddem" (bl-Ingliż). Miġbur 2021-08-01.
  17. ^ Marie-Noëlle Lamy, The Cambridge French-English Thesaurus, Cambridge University Press, 1998, ISBN 0521563488.
  18. ^ "SKOS Simple Knowledge Organization System Reference". www.w3.org. Miġbur 2021-08-01.
  19. ^ Siddharthan, Advaith. "An architecture for a text simplification system." Language Engineering Conference, 2002. Proceedings. IEEE, 2002.

Ħoloq esterni[immodifika | immodifika s-sors]