Arkeoloġija

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Tim ta' arkeologi jaħdmu fl-iskavi f'Ruma, l-Italja

L-arkeoloġija hija l-istudju xjentifiku tal-attività umana permezz tal-irkupru u l-analiżi tal-kultura materjali. Reġistru arkeoloġiku jikkonsisti mill-artefatti, l-arkitettura, il-bijofatti jew l-ekofatti, is-siti, u l-pajsaġġi kulturali. L-arkeoloġija tista' titqies kemm bħala xjenza soċjali kif ukoll bħala fergħa tal-umanitajiet.[1][2] Fl-Ewropa spiss titqies jew bħala dixxiplina jew inkella bħala sottoqasam ta' dixxiplini oħra, filwaqt li fl-Amerka ta' Fuq l-arkeoloġija hija sottoqasam tal-antopoloġija.[3]

L-arkeologi jistudjaw il-preistorja u l-istorja umana, mill-iżvilupp tal-ewwel għodod tal-ġebel f'Lomekwi fil-Lvant tal-Afrika 3.3 miljun sena ilu sal-aħħar deċennji.[4] L-arkeoloġija hija distinta mill-paleontoloġija, li hija l-istudju tal-fdalijiet tal-fossili. L-arkeoloġija hija partikolarment importanti biex nitgħallmu dwar soċjetajiet preistoriċi, li dwarhom ma hemm l-ebda tagħrif bil-miktub. Il-preistorja tinkludi iktar minn 99 % tal-imgħoddi tal-bniedem, mill-Paleolitiku sal-litteriżmu fis-soċjetajiet madwar id-dinja. L-arkeoloġija għandha diversi għanijiet, li jvarjaw mill-fehim tal-istorja kulturali, għar-rikostruzzjoni tal-istili ta' ħajja tal-imgħoddi, għad-dokumentazzjoni u l-ispjegazzjoni tat-tibdil fis-soċjetajiet umani maż-żmien.[5] It-terminu "arkeoloġija" oriġina mill-Grieg u litteralment ifisser "l-istudju tal-istorja tal-qedem".[6]

Filmat dwar ix-xogħlijiet differenti fl-irkupru u fl-analiżi arkeoloġiċi

Id-dixxiplina tinvolvi l-istħarriġ, l-iskavi u eventwalment l-analiżi tad-data li tinġabar biex wieħed jitgħallem iktar dwar l-imgħoddi. F'ambitu wiesa', l-arkeoloġija tiddependi fuq ir-riċerka bejn dixxiplini differenti.

L-arkeoloġija żviluppat mill-antikwarjaniżmu fl-Ewropa matul is-seklu 19, u minn dak iż-żmien saret dixxiplina pprattikata madwar id-dinja kollha. L-arkeoloġija ntużat min-nazzjonijiet u mill-istati biex jinħolqu viżjonijiet partikolari tal-imgħoddi.[7] Mill-iżvilupp bikri tagħha, żviluppaw diversi sottodixxiplini speċifiċi tal-arkeoloġija, inkluż l-arkeoloġija marittima, l-arkeoloġija femminista u l-arkeoastronomija. Barra minn hekk, ġew żviluppati bosta tekniki xjentifiċi differenti biex jgħinu fl-investigazzjoni arkeoloġika. Minkejja dan, illum il-ġurnata, l-arkeologi jiffaċċjaw bosta problemi, bħall-psewdoarkeoloġija, is-serq tal-artefatti, nuqqas ta' interess pubbliku, u l-oppożizzjoni għall-iskavi ta' fdalijiet umani.[8]

Biblijografija[immodifika | immodifika s-sors]

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·        Haviland, William A.; Prins, Harald E.L.; McBride, Bunny; Walrath, Dana (2010), Cultural Anthropology: The Human Challenge (13th ed.), Cengage Learning, ISBN 978-0-495-81082-7

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·        Hodder, I. (1990), "Style as Historical Quality", in Hastorf, M.C.A.C. (ed.), The Uses of Style in Archaeology, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press

·        Hodder, I. (1991), "Interpretive Archaeology and Its Role", American Antiquity, Society for American Archaeology, vol. 56, no. 1, pp. 7–18, doi:10.2307/280968, JSTOR 280968, S2CID 163936790

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·        Renfrew, C.; Bahn, P.G. (1991), Archaeology: Theories, Methods, and Practice, London: Thames and Hudson Ltd., ISBN 978-0-500-27867-3, OCLC 185808200

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·        Shanks, M.; Tilley, C. (1988), Social Theory and Archaeology, Albuquerque: University of New Mexico Press, ISBN 978-0-7456-0184-7, OCLC 16465065

·        Shanks, M. (1991), "Some recent approaches to style and social reconstruction in classical archaeology", Archaeological Review from Cambridge, vol. 10, pp. 164–74

·        Shanks, M. (1993), "Style and the design of a perfume jar from an Archaic Greek city state", Journal of European Archaeology, vol. 1, pp. 77–106, doi:10.1179/096576693800731190

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Iktar qari[immodifika | immodifika s-sors]

·        Rathje, William; Shanks, Michael; Witmore, Christoper (2013). Archaeology in the Making. London: Routledge. ISBN 978-0-415-63480-9.

·        Hodder, Ian; Shanks, Michael; Alexandri, Alexandar; Buchili, Victor; Carman, John; Last, Jonathan; Lucas, Gavin (2008). "Interpreting Archaeology: Finding Meaning in the Past". Routledge. London.

·        Olsen, Bjørnar; Shanks, Michael; Webmoor, Timothy; Witmore, Christopher (2012). "Archaeology: The Discipline of Things". University of California Press. Berkeley, Los Angeles, London.

·        Shanks, Michael (1992). Experiencing the Past: On the Character of Archaeology. London and New York: Routledge. ISBN 0-203-97363-1.

·        Archaeology (rivista)

·        Lewis Binford - New Perspectives in Archaeology (1968) ISBN 0-202-33022-2

·        Glyn Daniel – A Short History of Archaeology (1991)

·        Kevin Greene – Introduction to Archaeology (1983)

·        Thomas Hester, Harry Shafer, and Kenneth L. Feder – Field Methods in Archaeology 7th edition (1997)

·        Ian Hodder & Scott Hutson – "Reading the Past" 3rd. edition (2003)

·        Hutchings Rich, La Salle Marina (2014), "Teaching Anti-Colonial Archaeology", Archaeologies, 10 (1): 27–69, doi:10.1007/s11759-014-9250-y, S2CID 154800430

·        International Journal of South American Archaeology - IJSA (magazine)

·        Internet Archaeology, e-journal

·        C.U. Larsen - Sites and Monuments (1992)

·        Adrian Praetzellis – Death by Theory, AltaMira Press (2000). ISBN 0-7425-0359-3 ISBN 978-0-7425-0359-5

·        Colin Renfrew & Paul Bahn – Archaeology: theories, methods and practice, 2nd edition (1996)

·        Smekalova, T.N.; Voss O.; & Smekalov S.L. (2008). "Magnetic Surveying in Archaeology. More than 10 years of using the Overhauser GSM-19 gradiometer". Wormianum.

·        David Hurst Thomas – Archaeology, 3rd. edition (1998)

·        Robert J. Sharer & Wendy Ashmore – Archaeology: Discovering our Past 2nd edition (1993)

·        Bruce Trigger – "A History of Archaeological Thought" 2nd. edition (2007)

·        Alison Wylie – Thinking From Things: Essays in the Philosophy of Archaeology, University of California Press, Berkeley CA, 2002

Referenzi[immodifika | immodifika s-sors]

  1. ^ Renfrew u Bahn (2004 [1991]:13)
  2. ^ Sinclair A (2016), "The Intellectual Base of Archaeological Research 2004–2013: a visualisation and analysis of its disciplinary links, networks of authors and conceptual language", Internet Archaeology (42).
  3. ^ Haviland, William A.; Prins, Harald E.L.; McBride, Bunny; Walrath, Dana (2010), Cultural Anthropology: The Human Challenge (13th ed.), Cengage Learning, ISBN 978-0-495-81082-7. pp. 7, 14.
  4. ^ Roche, Hélène; Kent, Dennis V.; Kirwa, Christopher; Lokorodi, Sammy; Wright, James D.; Mortlock, Richard A.; Leakey, Louise; Brugal, Jean-Philip; Daver, Guillaume (May 2015). "3.3-million-year-old stone tools from Lomekwi 3, West Turkana, Kenya". Nature. 521 (7552): 310–315.
  5. ^ published, Owen Jarus (2014-03-28). "What Is Archaeology?". livescience.com (bl-Ingliż). Miġbur 2022-04-09.
  6. ^ The Oxford Encyclopedia of Mesoamerican Cultures. Oxford University Press. 2001. ISBN 978-0-19-510815-6.
  7. ^ Bueno, Christina (2016). The Pursuit of Ruins: Archaeology, History, and the Making of Modern Mexico. Albuquerque: University of New Mexico Press. pp. 25ff.
  8. ^ "openaccess". De Gruyter Conversations (bl-Ingliż). Miġbur 2022-04-09.