Hagia Sophia

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Hagia Sophia

Il-Hagia Sophia (bit-Tork: Ayasofya; bil-Grieg Koinē: Ἁγία Σοφία, b'ittri Rumani: Hagía Sophía; bil-Latin: Sancta Sophia, litteralment "Għerf Imqaddes"), magħrufa uffiċjalment bħala l-Gran Moskea Nobbli tal-Hagia Sophia (bit-Tork: Ayasofya-i Kebir Cami-i Şerifi)[1] u preċedentement bħala l-Knisja tal-Għerf Imqaddes (bil-Grieg: Ναός της Αγίας του Θεού Σοφίας, b'ittri Rumani: Naós tis Ayías tou Theoú Sofías)[2], hija post ta' qima tal-aħħar ta' żmien il-qedem f'Istanbul, it-Turkija, u ġiet iddisinjata mill-ġeometri Griegi Isidore ta' Miletus u Anthemius ta' Tralles.[3] Inbniet fil-537 bħala l-katidral patriarkali tal-belt kapitali imperjali ta' Kostantinopli, u kienet l-ikbar knisja Kristjana tal-Imperu Ruman tal-Lvant (l-Imperu Biżantin) u tal-Knisja Ortodossa tal-Lvant, għajr matul l-Imperu Latin mill-1204 sal-1261, meta temporanjament saret katidral Kattoliku Ruman. Fl-1453, wara l-Waqgħa ta' Kostantinopli f'idejn l-Imperu Ottoman, ġiet ikkonvertita f'moskea. Fl-1935, ir-Repubblika tat-Turkija stabbiliet mużew minflok, u baqgħet tintuża hekk għal 85 sena sa meta l-istatus tal-binja ġie annullat u reġgħet ġiet ikkonvertita f'moskea fl-2020.[4][5] Il-binja hija parti mis-Sit ta' Wirt Dinji tal-UNESCO taż-Żoni Storiċi ta' Istanbul li tniżżlu fil-lista tas-Siti ta' Wirt Dinji tal-UNESCO fl-1985.[6]

Storja[immodifika | immodifika s-sors]

Il-Hagia Sophia nbniet mill-imperatur Ruman tal-Lvant Ġustinjanu I bħala l-katidral Kristjan ta' Kostantinopli għall-knisja statali tal-Imperu Ruman bejn il-532 u l-537. Il-knisja dak iż-żmien kienet l-ikbar spazju intern fid-dinja u minn tal-ewwel li kellha koppla b'volti li jiffurmaw triangolu b'kurvatura. Titqies bħala l-epitoma tal-arkitettura Biżantina u jingħad li "bidlet l-istorja tal-arkitettura".[7][8] Il-binja attwali kienet it-tielet knisja bl-istess isem li okkupat is-sit, peress li dawk ta' qabel kienu nqerdu fir-rewwixti ta' Nika. Bħala s-sede episkopali tal-patriarka ekumeniku ta' Kostantinopli, baqgħet l-ikbar katidral fid-dinja għal kważi elf sena, sa meta tlesta l-Katidral ta' Sivilja fl-1520 fi Spanja. Permezz tal-arkitettura Biżantina sussegwenti, il-Hagia Sophia saret l-għamla paradigmatika tal-Knisja Ortodossa, u l-istil arkitettoniku tagħha ġie emulat mill-moskej Ottomani elf sena wara. Ġiet deskritta bħala binja li "għandha pożizzjoni unika fid-dinja Kristjana"[9] u bħala ikona arkitettonika u kulturali taċ-ċivilizzazzjoni Biżantina u Ortodossa tal-Lvant.[10][11]

L-elementi Kristjani u Musulmani fuq ġewwa tal-Hagia Sophia

Bħala ċ-ċentru reliġjuż u spiritwali tal-Knisja Ortodossa tal-Lvant għal kważi elf sena, il-knisja kienet iddedikata lill-Għerf Imqaddes.[12][13][14] Fiha ngħatat uffiċjalment l-iskomunika tal-Patriarka Mikiel I Ċerularju minn Humbert ta' Silva Candida, il-mibgħut tal-Papa Ljun IX fl-1054, att li jitqies bħala l-bidu tax-Xiżma bejn il-Lvant u l-Punent. Fl-1204, ġiet ikkonvertita matul ir-Raba' Kruċjata f'katidral Kattoliku taħt l-Imperu Latin, qabel ma reġgħet lura għand il-Knisja Ortodossa tal-Lvant meta reġa' kiseb il-poter l-Imperu Biżantin fl-1261. Id-doġe ta' Venezja li mexxa r-Raba' Kruċjata u s-Serqa ta' Kostantinopli fl-1204, Enrico Dandolo, indifen fil-knisja.

Wara l-Waqgħa ta' Kostantinopli f'idejn l-Imperu Ottoman fl-1453[15], ġiet ikkonvertita f'moskea minn Mehmed il-Ħakkiem u saret il-moskea prinċipali ta' Istanbul sal-kostruzzjoni fl-1616 tal-Moskea tas-Sultan Ahmed.[16][17] Malli ġiet ikkonvertita, il-qniepen, l-artal, l-ikonostażi, l-ambone, u l-battisterju tneħħew, filwaqt li l-ikonografija, bħax-xbihat bil-mużajk ta' Ġesù, ta' Santa Marija, u tal-qaddisin u tal-anġli Kristjani tneħħew jew ġew miksija bit-tkaħħil.[18] Fost iż-żidiet arkitettoniċi Iżlamiċi kien hemm l-erba' minareti, minbar u miħrab. L-arkitettura Biżantina tal-Hagia Sophia serviet bħala ispirazzjoni għal bosta binjiet reliġjużi oħra, fosthom il-Hagia Sophia f'Thessaloniki, Panagia Ekatontapiliani, il-Moskea ta' Şehzade, il-Moskea ta' Süleymaniye, il-Moskea ta' Rüstem Pasha u l-Kumpless ta' Kılıç Ali Pasha. Il-patriarkat ġie ttrasferit lejn il-Knisja tal-Appostli Mqaddsa, li saret il-katidral tal-belt.

Il-kumpless baqa' moskea sal-1931 u din ingħalqet għall-pubbliku għal erba' snin. Reġgħet infetħet fl-1935 bħala mużew taħt ir-Repubblika lajka tat-Turkija[19], u l-binja kienet l-iżjed attrazzjoni fit-Turkija li żaruha turisti fl-2015[20] u fl-2019.[21][22] F'Lulju 2020, il-Kunsill tal-Istat annulla d-deċiżjoni tal-1934 li jiġi stabbilit mużew, u l-Hagia Sophia ġiet ikklassifikata mill-ġdid bħala moskea.[23][24][25] Id-digriet tal-1934 ġie meqjus bħala mhux konformi mal-liġi skont id-dritt Ottoman u Tork, peress li l-waqf tal-Hagia Sophia, inkarigat mis-Sultan Mehmed, kien iddeżinja s-sit bħala moskea; dawk li kienu favur id-deċiżjoni argumentaw li l-Hagia Sophia kienet proprjetà personali tas-sultan.[26][27][28] Din id-deżinjazzjoni mill-ġdid wasslet għal kundanni mill-oppożizzjoni tat-Turkija, mill-UNESCO, mill-Kunsill Dinji tal-Knejjes, mill-Assoċjazzjoni Internazzjonali tal-Istudji Biżantini, u minn bosta mexxejja internazzjonali.[29][30][31][32][33]

Sit ta' Wirt Dinji[immodifika | immodifika s-sors]

Iż-Żoni Storiċi ta' Istanbul ġew iddeżinjati bħala Sit ta' Wirt Dinji tal-UNESCO fl-1985. Fl-2017 kien hemm modifika żgħira fil-konfini tas-sit.[6]

Il-valur universali straordinarju tas-sit ġie rrikonoxxut abbażi ta' erba' kriterji tal-għażla tal-UNESCO: il-kriterju (i) "Rappreżentazzjoni ta' kapulavur frott il-kreattività tal-bniedem"; il-kriterju (ii) "Wirja ta' skambju importanti ta' valuri umani, tul perjodu ta' żmien jew fi ħdan żona kulturali fid-dinja, dwar l-iżviluppi fl-arkitettura jew it-teknoloġija, l-arti monumentali, l-ippjanar tal-bliet jew id-disinn tal-pajsaġġ"; il-kriterju (iii) "Xhieda unika jew minn tal-inqas eċċezzjonali ta' tradizzjoni kulturali jew ta' ċivilizzazzjoni li għadha ħajja jew li għebet" u l-kriterju (iv) "Eżempju straordinarju ta' tip ta' bini, ta' grupp ta' siti jew ta' pajsaġġ arkitettoniku jew teknoloġiku li joħroġ fid-dieher stadju/i sinifikanti fl-istorja tal-bniedem".[6]

Biblijografija[immodifika | immodifika s-sors]

  • Boyran, Ebru; Fleet, Kate (2010). A social History of Ottoman Istanbul. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. ISBN 978-0-521-19955-1.
  • Brubaker, Leslie; Haldon, John (2011). Byzantium in the Iconoclast era (ca 680–850). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. ISBN 978-0-521-43093-7.
  • Hoffman, Volker (1999). Die Hagia Sophia in Istanbul (in German). Bern: Lang. ISBN 978-3-906762-81-4.
  • Janin, Raymond (1953). La Géographie Ecclésiastique de l'Empire Byzantin. 1. Part: Le Siège de Constantinople et le Patriarcat Oecuménique. 3rd Vol. : Les Églises et les Monastères. Paris: Institut Français d'Études Byzantines.
  • Mainstone, Rowland J. (1997). Hagia Sophia: Architecture, Structure, and Liturgy of Justinian's Great Church (reprint ed.). W.W. Norton & Co. ISBN 978-0-500-27945-8..
  • Mamboury, Ernest (1953). The Tourists' Istanbul. Istanbul: Çituri Biraderler Basımevi.
  • Müller-Wiener, Wolfgang (1977). Bildlexikon zur Topographie Istanbuls: Byzantion, Konstantinupolis, Istanbul bis zum Beginn d. 17 Jh (in German). Tübingen: Wasmuth. ISBN 978-3-8030-1022-3.
  • Necipoĝlu, Gulru (2005). The Age of Sinan: Architectural Culture in the Ottoman Empire. London: Reaktion Books. ISBN 978-1-86189-244-7.
  • Ronchey, Silvia; Braccini, Tommaso (2010). Il romanzo di Costantinopoli. Guida letteraria alla Roma d'Oriente (in Italian). Torino: Einaudi. ISBN 978-88-06-18921-1.
  • Runciman, Steven (1965). The Fall of Constantinople, 1453. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. p. 145. ISBN 0-521-39832-0.
  • Savignac, David. "The Medieval Russian Account of the Fourth Crusade – A New Annotated Translation".
  • Turner, J. (1996). Grove Dictionary of Art. Oxford, England: Oxford University Press. ISBN 978-0-19-517068-9.

Iktar qari[immodifika | immodifika s-sors]

  • Balfour, John Patrick Douglas (1972). Hagia Sophia. W.W. Norton & Company. ISBN 978-0-88225-014-4.
  • Cimok, Fatih (2004). Hagia Sophia. Milet Publishing Ltd. ISBN 978-975-7199-61-8.
  • Doumato, Lamia (1980). The Byzantine church of Hagia Sophia: Selected references. Vance Bibliographies. ASIN B0006E2O2M.
  • Goriansky, Lev Vladimir (1933). Haghia Sophia: analysis of the architecture, art and spirit behind the shrine in Constantinople dedicated to Hagia Sophia. American School of Philosophy. ASIN B0008C47EA.
  • Glinavos I. (2022) Hagia Sophia at ICSID? The Limits of Sovereign Discretion. In: . European Yearbook of International Economic Law. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg. https://doi.org/10.1007/8165_2021_78
  • Harris, Jonathan, Constantinople: Capital of Byzantium. Hambledon/Continuum (2007). ISBN 978-1-84725-179-4
  • Howland Swift, Emerson (1937). The bronze doors of the gate of the horologium at Hagia Sophia. University of Chicago. ASIN B000889GIG.
  • Kahler, Heinz (1967). Haghia Sophia. Praeger. ASIN B0008C47EA.
  • Kinross, Lord (1972). Hagia Sophia, Wonders of Man. Newsweek. ASIN B000K5QN9W.
  • Kleinbauer, W. Eugene; Anthony White (2007). Hagia Sophia. London: Scala Publishers. ISBN 978-1-85759-308-2.
  • Kleinbauer, W. Eugene (2000). Saint Sophia at Constantinople: Singulariter in Mundo (Monograph (Frederic Lindley Morgan Chair of Architectural Design), No. 5.). William L. Bauhan. ISBN 978-0-87233-123-5.
  • Krautheimer, Richard (1984). Early Christian and Byzantine Architecture. New Haven, CT: Yale University Press. ISBN 978-0-300-05294-7.
  • Mainstone, R.J. (1997). Hagia Sophia: Architecture, Structure, and Liturgy of Justinian's Great Church. London: Thames & Hudson. ISBN 978-0-500-27945-8.
  • Mainstone, Rowland J. (1988). Hagia Sophia. Architecture, structure and liturgy of Justinian's great church. London: Thames & Hudson. ISBN 978-0-500-34098-1.
  • Mango, Cyril; Ahmed Ertuğ (1997). Hagia Sophia. A vision for empires. Istanbul.
  • Mark, R.; Çakmaktitle, AS. (1992). Hagia Sophia from the Age of Justinian to the Present. Princeton Architectural. ISBN 978-1-878271-11-2.
  • Nelson, Robert S. (2004). Hagia Sophia, 1850–1950: Holy Wisdom Modern Monument. Chicago: University of Chicago Press. ISBN 978-0-226-57171-3.
  • Özkul, T.A. (2007). Structural characteristics of Hagia Sophia: I-A finite element formulation for static analysis. Elsevier.
  • Scharf, Joachim:Der Kaiser in Proskynese. Bemerkungen zur Deutung des Kaisermosaiks im Narthex der Hagia Sophia von Konstantinopel. In: Festschrift Percy Ernst Schramm zu seinem siebzigsten Geburtstag von Schülern und Freunden zugeeignet, Wiesbaden 1964, S. 27–35.
  • Swainson, Harold (2005). The Church of Sancta Sophia Constantinople: A Study of Byzantine Building. Boston, MA: Adamant Media Corporation. ISBN 978-1-4021-8345-4.
  • Weitzmann, Kurt, ed., Age of spirituality: late antique and early Christian art, third to seventh century, no. 592, 1979, Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York, ISBN 978-0-87099-179-0
  • Xydis, Stephen G. (1947). "The Chancel Barrier, Solea, and Ambo of Hagia Sophia". The Art Bulletin. 29 (1): 1–24. doi:10.2307/3047098. ISSN 0004-3079. JSTOR 3047098.
  • Yucel, Erdem (2005). Hagia Sophia. Scala Publishers. ISBN 978-1-85759-250-4.

Artikli[immodifika | immodifika s-sors]

  • Alchermes, Joseph D. (2005). "Art and Architecture in the Age of Justinian". In Maas, Michael (ed.). The Cambridge Companion to the Age of Justinian. Cambridge: Cambridge U.P. pp. 343–75. ISBN 978-0-521-52071-3.
  • Atchison, Bob (2020). "History of Hagia Sophia – the Church of Holy Wisdom". My World of Byzantium.
  • Bordewich, Fergus M., "A Monumental Struggle to Preserve Hagia Sophia", Smithsonian magazine, December 2008
  • Calian, Florian, The Hagia Sophia and Turkey's Neo-Ottomanism, Armenian Weekly.
  • Osseman, Dick. "Aya Sofya Photo Gallery". Pbase.com.
  • Ousterhout, Robert G. "Museum or Mosque? Istanbul's Hagia Sophia has been a monument to selective readings of history." History Today (Set 2020).
  • Suchkov, Maxim, Why did Moscow call Ankara's Hagia Sophia decision “Turkey's internal affair”?, Middle East Institute.

Mużajk[immodifika | immodifika s-sors]

  • Hagia Sophia, hagiasophia.com: Mosaics.
  • MacDonald, William Lloyd (1951). The uncovering of Byzantine mosaics in Hagia Sophia. Archaeological Institute of America. ASIN B0007GZTKS.
  • Mango, Cyril (1972). The mosaics of St. Sophia at Istanbul: The church fathers in the north Tympanum. Dumbarton Oaks Center for Byzantine Studies. ASIN B0007CAVA0.
  • Mango, Cyril (1968). The Apse mosaics of St. Sophia at Istanbul: Report on work carried out in 1964. Johnson Reprints. ASIN B0007G5RBY.
  • Mango, Cyril; Heinz Kahler (1967). Hagia Sophia: With a Chapter on the Mosaics. Praeger. ASIN B0000CO5IL.
  • Teteriatnikov, Natalia B. (1998). Mosaics of Hagia Sophia, Istanbul: The Fossati Restoration and the Work of the Byzantine Institute. Dumbarton Oaks Research Library and Collection. ISBN 978-0-88402-264-0.
  • Riccardi, Lorenzo (2012). Alcune riflessioni sul mosaico del vestibolo sud-ovest della Santa Sofia di Costantinopoli, in Vie per Bisanzio. VIII Congresso Nazionale dell'Associazione Italiana di Studi Bizantini (Venezia 25–28 novembre 2009), a cura di Antonio Rigo, Andrea Babuin e Michele Trizio. Bari. pp. 357–71. ISBN 978-88-7470-229-9.
  • Yücel, Erdem (1988). The mosaics of Hagia Sophia. Efe Turizm. ASIN B0007CBGYA.

Referenzi[immodifika | immodifika s-sors]

  1. ^ Eyice, Semavi (1991). "Ayasofia" [Hagia Sophia]. Islam Ansiklopedisi (bit-Tork). Vol. 4. Istanbul: Turkish Diyanet Foundation. pp. 206–210.
  2. ^ Hamm, Jean S. (2010). Term Paper Resource Guide to Medieval History. ABC-CLIO. p. 39. ISBN 978-0-313-35967-5.
  3. ^ Kleiner, Fred S.; Christin J. Mamiya (2008). Gardner's Art Through the Ages: Volume I, Chapters 1–18 (12th ed.). Mason, OH: Wadsworth. p. 329. ISBN 978-0-495-46740-3.
  4. ^ Emerson, William; van Nice, Robert L. (1950). "Hagia Sophia and the First Minaret Erected after the Conquest of Constantinople". American Journal of Archaeology. 54 (1): 28–40. ISSN 0002-9114.
  5. ^ Curta, Florin; Holt, Andrew (2016). Great Events in Religion: An Encyclopedia of Pivotal Events in Religious History [3 volumi]. ABC-CLIO. p. 299. ISBN 978-1-61069-566-4.
  6. ^ a b c Centre, UNESCO World Heritage. "Historic Areas of Istanbul". UNESCO World Heritage Centre (bl-Ingliż). Miġbur 2022-04-26.
  7. ^ Fazio, Michael; Moffett, Marian; Wodehouse, Lawrence (2009). Buildings Across Time (3rd ed.). McGraw-Hill Higher Education. ISBN 978-0-07-305304-2.
  8. ^ Simons, Marlise (1993-08-22). "Center of Ottoman Power" (bl-Ingliż). Miġbur 2022-04-26.
  9. ^ Heinle & Schlaich, 1996.
  10. ^ Cameron 2009.
  11. ^ Meyendorff 1982.
  12. ^ Janin (1953), p. 471.
  13. ^ Binns, John (2002). An Introduction to the Christian Orthodox Churches. Cambridge University Press. p. 57. ISBN 978-0-521-66738-8.
  14. ^ McKenzie, Steven L.; Graham, Matt Patrick (1998). The Hebrew Bible Today: An Introduction to Critical Issues. Westminster John Knox Press. p. 149. ISBN 978-0-664-25652-4.
  15. ^ Müller-Wiener (1977), p. 112.
  16. ^ published, Owen Jarus (2013-03-01). "Hagia Sophia: Facts, History & Architecture". livescience.com (bl-Ingliż). Miġbur 2022-04-26.
  17. ^ "Hagia Sophia". web.archive.org. 2009-01-05. Miġbur 2022-04-26.
  18. ^ Müller-Wiener (1977), p. 91.
  19. ^ "Oxford Art". Oxford Art Online (bl-Ingliż). Miġbur 2022-04-26.
  20. ^ "Hagia Sophia still Istanbul's top tourist attraction". Hürriyet Daily News (bl-Ingliż). Miġbur 2022-04-26.
  21. ^ "Hagia Sophia: Turkey turns iconic Istanbul museum into mosque" (bl-Ingliż). 2020-07-10. Miġbur 2022-04-26.
  22. ^ "Hagia Sophia still top tourist attraction". Hürriyet Daily News (bl-Ingliż). Miġbur 2022-04-26.
  23. ^ "Presidential Decree on the opening of Hagia Sophia to worship promulgated on the Official Gazette". wt.iletisim.gov.tr (bit-Tork). Miġbur 2022-04-26.
  24. ^ Gall, Carlotta (2020-07-10). "Erdogan Signs Decree Allowing Hagia Sophia to Be Used as a Mosque Again" (bl-Ingliż). Miġbur 2022-04-26.
  25. ^ "Turkey: Court strikes down Hagia Sophia museum decree". www.aa.com.tr. Miġbur 2022-04-26.
  26. ^ "Turkey's Erdogan says Hagia Sophia becomes mosque after court ruling". CNBC (bl-Ingliż). 2020-07-10. Miġbur 2022-04-26.
  27. ^ SABAH, DAILY (2020-07-11). "Turning Hagia Sophia into museum violated will of its endower, Mehmed the Conquerer, Turkish court says". Daily Sabah (bl-Ingliż). Miġbur 2022-04-26.
  28. ^ "Turkey's president formally makes Hagia Sophia a mosque". AP NEWS (bl-Ingliż). 2021-04-20. Miġbur 2022-04-26.
  29. ^ https://plus.google.com/+UNESCO (2020-07-10). "UNESCO statement on Hagia Sophia, Istanbul". UNESCO (bl-Ingliż). Miġbur 2022-04-26.
  30. ^ "Hagia Sophia: World Council of Churches appeals to Turkey on mosque decision" (bl-Ingliż). 2020-07-11. Miġbur 2022-04-26.
  31. ^ "Hagia Sophia: Pope 'pained' as Istanbul museum reverts to mosque" (bl-Ingliż). 2020-07-12. Miġbur 2022-04-26.
  32. ^ "World reacts to Turkey reconverting Hagia Sophia into a mosque". www.aljazeera.com (bl-Ingliż). Miġbur 2022-04-26.
  33. ^ "Byzantine News, Issue 33, July 2020". us17.campaign-archive.com. Miġbur 2022-04-26.