Imperu Kushan

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L-Imperu Kushan (ċ. Seklu ISeklu III) kien stat li fl-aqwa tiegħu, bejn l-105250, kien jifrex minn Tajikistan sal-Baħar Kaspjan sa l-Afganistan u l-isfel fil-wied tax-Xmara Ganges. L-imperu inħoloq mit-tribù Kushan ta' lYuezhi, li kien poplu mill-Xinjiang moderna, Ċina, possibilment relatat mat-Tocharians. Kellhom kuntatti diplomatiċi ma' Ruma, Persja Sassanja u Ċina, u għal ħafna sekli kienu fiċ-ċentru ta' skambji bejn il-Lvant u l-Punent.

Oriġini[editja]

L-isem Kushan ġej mill-kelma Ċiniża Guishuang (Ċ:貴霜) li kienet tiddiskrivi wieħed mill-ħames tribujiet ta' l-Yuezhi (Ċ:月氏), konfederazzjoni laxka ta' popli Indo-Ewropej li jitkellmu verżjonijiet tal-lingwa Tocharian. Kienu l-Indo-Ewropej li joqgħodu l-iktar fil-Lvant, li kienu jgħixu fil-Baċir Tarim fil-Xinjiang tal-lum il-ġurnata, sakemm ġew imkeċċija lejn il-Punent mill-Xiongnu fil176160 q.K. Il-ħames tribujiet Yuezhi huma magħrufa fl-istorja Ċiniża bħala Xiūmì (Ch:休密), Guishuang (Ch:貴霜), Shuangmi (Ch:雙靡), Xidun (Ch:肸頓), u Dūmì (Ch:都密).

Il-Yuezhi waslu fir-renju Ellenistiku ta' Greco-Bactria, fit-territorju Bactrian (Afganistan u Uzbekistan ta' fuq) fil-135 q.K ċirka, u rrimpjazzaw id-dinastiji Griegi t'hemmhekk, li mxew fil-baċir Indus (illum fil-Pakistan) fil-parti tal-punent tar-Renju Indo-Grieg.

Waqa'[editja]

Dinar tad-deheb tar-rè tal-Kushan, Kanishka II (200220)

Mis-Seklu III 'l quddiem, l-Imperu Kushan beda jitfarrak.

Ċirka il-225, Vasudeva I miet u l-Imperu Kushan ġie maqsum f'żewġ partijiet, dak tal-lvant u dak tal-punent. Bejn il-224240, is-Sasanians invadew Bactria u l-Indja ta' Fuq, fejn huma magħrufa bħala l-Indo-Sassanians.

Għall-ħabta tal-270, il-Kushani tilfu t-territorji tagħhom fil-pjanura tal-Ganges, fejn ġie stabbilit l-Imperu Gupta ċirka 320.

F'nofs is-Seklu IV vassal Kushan fil-Pakistan, bl-isema ta' Kidara, ħa l-poter u kisser id-dinastija antika tal-Kushan. Huwa ħoloq renju magħruf bħala r-Renju Kidarite, avolja hu probabilment kien jikkunsidra lilu nnifsu bħala Kushan, kif inhu indikat bl-istil Kushan li adotta għall-muniti tiegħu. Il-Kidariti jidru li kienu pjuttost prosperużi, għalkemm fuq skala iżgħat mill-predeċessuri Kushani tagħhom.

Il-fdalijiet ta' l-Imperu Kushan kienu eventwalment imwarrba fis-Seklu V bl-invażjonijiet tal-White Huns, u iktar 'il quddiem bl-espansjoni ta' l-Iżlam.

Sovrani Kushan prinċipali[editja]

Links esterni[editja]

Referenzi[editja]

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  • Liu, Xinru 2001 “Migration and Settlement of the Yuezhi-Kushan: Interaction and Interdependence of Nomadic and Sedentary Societies.” Journal of World History, Volume 12, No. 2, Fall 2001. University of Hawaii Press, pp. 261–292. [3].
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  • Watson, Burton. Trans. 1961. Records of the Grand Historian of China: Translated from the Shih chi of Ssu-ma Ch'ien. Chapter 123: The Account of Ta-yüan, p. 265. Columbia University Press. ISBN 0-231-08167-7